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The only named bonsai style to originate in China, with Japanese name Bunjin ( sometimes also spelt as Bunjingi).
The Chinese word "wenjen" means "scholars practiced in the arts". Japanese bonsai growers translated this as "bunjin" which has no English equivalent so western growers use the name "literati" which derives from the Latin word for "literate" or "educated" people.
This style breaks many of the bonsai "rules", usually with several twists and curves in the trunk. In nature, Scots Pines often grow in this form.
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