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Describes the concentration of energy at the top of the tree, usually resulting from the sun's impact.
This results in more vibrant growth at the apex than elsewhere and often requires action to ensure that energy is more evenly spread throughout the tree.
A good example of an apically dominant genus of tree is Pinus.
The opposite effect i.e. more growth in the lower branches, is displayed by some trees and bushes and is known as lateral dominance. An example of a laterally dominant tree is Rhododendron.
The aim in bonsai is to decrease either of these dominant tendencies so that the subject looks more like a mature tree rather than a bush or a sapling.
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