A common tree throughout much of Europe from Norway down to the Mediterranean and to Western Asia. It is an important forestry wood in Europe with its Hard Light coloured wood finding use in furniture to musical instruments. As Bonsai it make an attractive Medium to Large Bonsai, despite it's larger leaf size.
Styles : Formal upright, Informal Upright, Slanting, Broom, Twin trunk.
Watering : Water regularly keeping soil moist but not wet as roots tend to susceptible to rot. Ensure well-drained soil.
Feeding : Between early spring and late summer feed biweekly with a balanced low yield fertiliser. N:PK 4:4:4 or their about. Use a low nitrogen fertiliser in autumns. Slow release fertilisers are best applied in early spring as new growth appears.
Leaf and Branch Pruning:Heavy pruning is best done in early spring before new growth appears. New growth pruning can be done in late spring early summer when 5-6 leaf nodes have grown on a stem. Cut back to leave the last two leaf node. In more mature/established specimens apex nodes are pinched off before they start to grow to encourage lateral shoots and finer branching.
Re-potting & Growing Medium: Repot in spring every year for younger trees and every 2 to 3 years for older trees, shortening the roots by up to a third of their length. Remove dead or damaged roots to avoid root rot. Repot in 3 Parts loam, 1 part peat, and 1 part coarse sand (or 2 Part Akadama and 1 part Bark and 1 Part Fuji Grit or Pumice).
Wiring: Younger branches may be wired sparingly and with care, in spring. Check wire frequently and remove after a few months. Older more stubborn branches will need to be pulled in to position with a wire tourniquet slowly and gradually.