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A to Z of Bonsai
bonsai photo
Bonsai Meetings
Bonsai Exhibition
Bonsai Terms
The Editor
 



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A to Z Glossary of Bonsai Terms

This glossary of bonsai terms is the complete current list in our database of bonsai terms so may take a minute or two to load completely.

There are 819 items in our glossary of bonsai terms and we are updating existing and adding new bonsai terms every week. The pages have been viewed 2841633 times. To view the complete details for an entry click the button, or click one of the letters which will take you to all entries for your chosen letter and into the complete A to Z.



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Letter

Aberkenfig & District Bonsai Club - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Aberkenfig & District Bonsai Club Club or Group
Aberkenfig & District Bonsai Club (South Wales)
Aberkenfig

Name:

Gary Duckenfield (Secretary)

email:

duckenfieldg@aol.com

Tel No:

07803 570444


Abscission - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Abscission Other

The shedding of leaves, fruit, flower or seed from parts of a tree.

Abscission normally occurs in deciduous trees in the autumn. Some trees also abscise limbs as part of the reproduction process e.g. Willow. Fruits may be abscised from trees to benefit the remaining fruits allowing them to come to maturity.


Acaricide - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Acaricide Treatments

Are pesticides that kill members of the arachnid subclass Acari, which includes ticks and mites.


Accent pot - (Pot)

Entry for Bonsai Accent pot Pot

Miniature pot designed to accommodate an accent plant and enhance the overall image of the tree.


Accrington & District Bonsai Society - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Accrington & District Bonsai Society Club or Group

ACCRINGTON, LANCASHIRE

Venue: Hippings Vale Community Centre, Oswaldtwistle, Lancs

Day: First Tuesday of the month 7.30pm

Web Site: www.accringtonbonsai.co.uk/

Contact -

Name: Ray Couldwell 

email: contact.us@accringtonbonsai.co.uk

Tel No: 01254 383654


Acer (Genus) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Acer (Genus) Tree Type (Outdoors)

The genus of trees and shrubs commonly known as Maple, from the Latin word ācer meaning sharp. There are approximately 128 different species.

There are thousands of different varieties/cultivars worldwide. Acers are popular deciduous specimens for bonsai being very "showy" trees both in the spring and autumn. The most popular are the red varieties of the Palmatum species, Deshojo being one that is widely available.

See seperate entries for the most popular bonsai species:
Acer Buergerianum (Trident Maple),
Acer Campestre (Field Maple),
Acer Platanoides (Norway Maple),
Acer Palmatum also known as Maple - Japanese (Acer Palmatum).


Acer Buergerianum (Trident Maple) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Acer Buergerianum (Trident Maple) Tree Type (Outdoors)

 

See MAPLE - TRIDENT (ACER BUERGERIANUM/ACER TRFIDUM).  


Acer Campestre (Field Maple) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Acer Campestre (Field Maple) Tree Type (Outdoors)

 

See Maple - Field (Acer Campestre)


Acer Palmatum - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Acer Palmatum Tree Type (Outdoors)

Also known as -  Maple - Japanese (Acer Palmatum).

This category covers a wide range of cultivars including : Deshojo, Chisio, Ukon, Dissectum Atropurpurium and many others. originating from Japan they exhibit a wide range of leaf and bark colourings.

STYLE : Upright tree suitable for most styles except literati.

WARNING : Prefers dappled shade. Needs protection from scorching by exposure to the hottest summer sun. Susceptible to aphids and scale insect.


Acer Platanoides (Norway Maple) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Acer Platanoides (Norway Maple) Tree Type (Outdoors)

See Maple - Norway (Acer Platanoides)


Acicular (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Acicular (leaf) Tree Parts

Needle shaped leaf - e.g. as seen on pine trees


Acuminate (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Acuminate (leaf) Tree Parts

Tapering to a long point.  The emphasis here is on "long" as a leaf tapering to a short point is termed "Aristate".


Adam's Bonsai - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Adam's Bonsai Dealer

Specialist suppliers of indoor & outdoor Bonsai Trees, tools, pots, wires & accessories. All our goods are expertly packaged & insured against damage.

All our items are available to buy, collect or view at -
All Things Bonsai,
Godfreys Garden Centre,
Hardwick Lane,
Sheffield,
S26 2BE

Open every weekend and other times by appointment.

Contact Adam

Tel: 07903 406 373


Adelgid - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Adelgid Pests and Diseases

Tiny aphid-like insects attack conifers and can seriously affect young tree producing tufts of white wool on the leaves.

Spraying twice with Malathion 2-3 weeks apart is best treatment for serious infestation.


Aesculus Hippocastanum - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Aesculus Hippocastanum Tree Type (Outdoors)

See "Horse Chestnut".


Aka Matsu School of Bonsai - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Aka Matsu School of Bonsai Club or Group
Aka Matsu School of Bonsai
Seaham, Co Durham

Name:

Graham Walker

email:

graham.walker11@ntlworld.com

Tel No:

01287 637734

Venue:

Seaton Community Centre, 
Seaton, 
Seaham, 
Co Durham SR7 0NA

Day:

1st Thursday monthly at 7.15pm


All Things Bonsai - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai All Things Bonsai Dealer

Site offers a range of bonsai products either on-line or via personal visit. Fortnightly beginers classes and fortnightly workshops also offered.

All Things Bonsai can be found at:
Godfreys Garden Centre
Hardwick Lane
Sheffield
S26 2BE

Open every weekend and other times by appointment.

Contact : Adam 

Tel: 07903 406 373


Alternate leaf - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Alternate leaf Tree Parts

Leaves or buds which arise first on one side of the stem and then on the other alternately - as opposed to being directly opposite one another.


Ambion Bonsai Club - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Ambion Bonsai Club Club or Group

Winners of RHS Gold Medal in 2011 and Best National Plant Display at BBC Gardeners World Live in 2010 and 2011. Meets last Thursday of every month except June and December.

Membership £20 p.a. Visitors £2 per meeting.

Meetings 19.30-22.00 at :

Hatters Space Community Centre,
Upper Abbey Street,
Nuneaton
CV11 5DN.

Contact : George Cox (024 7634 6277) or David Cheshire (07708 918847).


Angiosperm - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Angiosperm Tree Parts

This is the term used to describe flowering trees or bushes where the seeds are enclosed in a soft fleshy body e.g. hawthorn, apple.

See also Gymnosperm.


Angustufolius leaves - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Angustufolius leaves Tree Parts
Narrow leaf form.

Annealing - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Annealing Procedure

The process of softening aluminium/copper wire by heating and then allowing to cool before applying to bonsai.

As copper is worked it becomes progressively stiffer. Most copper wire used as a conductor in electrical cables has not been annealed and is relatively stiff. To allow the wire to be used as bonsai wire simply heat with a blowlamp until it is red hot (which happens quite quickly) and allow to cool. The wire will now be much more supple. If you take a piece of the wire and bend it a few times it will become progressively stiffer again.


Apex - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Apex Tree Parts

The top of the tree.  Trees are described as apically dominant when the growth energy of teh tree is focussed towards the top branches as at the expense of lower branches.


Aphids - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Aphids Pests and Diseases

These come in a variety of colours : greenfly, blackfly, whitefly or gall aphid. They colonise plants and suck the sap from the stems , leaves and fruit.

The first indication of an infestation is the curling and distortion of leaves. The woolly aphid can be a serious problem on pine, larch and beech, manifesting itself as a white, fluffy, sticky mass.

The Gall aphid can result in development of galls on leaves.

In all cases the application of a systemic insecticide should be sufficient to deal with the problem.


Apical (of buds) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Apical (of buds) Tree Parts

The end or terminal bud on a branch or on the apex of the tree's trunk.

Apical buds tend to absorb more of the energy on the branch of the tree than buds found closer to the trunk.


Apical dominance - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Apical dominance Tree Parts

Describes the concentration of energy at the top of the tree, usually resulting from the sun's impact.

This results in more vibrant growth at the apex than elsewhere and often requires action to ensure that energy is more evenly spread throughout the tree.

A good example of an apically dominant genus of tree is Pinus.

The opposite effect i.e. more growth in the lower branches, is displayed by some trees and bushes and is known as lateral dominance. An example of a laterally dominant tree is Rhododendron.

The aim in bonsai  is to decrease either of these dominant tendencies so that the subject looks more like a mature tree rather than a bush or a sapling.


Approach grafting  - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Approach grafting  Procedure

Also termed "inarching", this is the grafting process where the exposed cambium of the scion (branch of the same tree) is fixed to the exposed cambium of the trunk at the location where a new branch is required. In time the scion grafts (or merges) to the wood of the tree.


Apricot (Prunus mume) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Apricot (Prunus mume) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Also referred to as Japanese Flowering Apricot. Deciduous tree with oval, taper pointed, mid-green leaves producing blossom, fruits and large blooms of fragrant flowers on bare winter branches.

STYLE : suited to every style, except formal upright and broom.

WARNING : Do not allow soil to dry out while in bud, otherwise buds will drop. Protect from frost to avoid die-back or flower damage.


Aquifolius leaves - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Aquifolius leaves Tree Parts

Spiny leaf form.

Classic example is leaf of the holly (ilex aquifolium).


Arcuate - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Arcuate Tree Parts

Leaf vein pattern where secondary veins emanating from a central stem bend towards the leaf apex in a wine glass type of profile.


Aristate (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Aristate (leaf) Tree Parts

Rounded shoulder with short spine-like tip.


Armillaria - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Armillaria Pests and Diseases

See entry for : "Honey Fungus"


Art of Bonsai - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai Art of Bonsai Blogs and Advice
The Art of Bonsai Project is an online journal and community for the examination and exploration of the bonsai art form.

Artistic Foundations of Bonsai Design (Andy Rutledge) - (Books and Articles)

Entry for Bonsai Artistic Foundations of Bonsai Design (Andy Rutledge) Books and Articles

Author : Andy Rutledge

Available only on line as far as we know.

This book is an effort to help bonsai enthusiasts understand how to use time-honored methods—artistic methods—for producing more successful and meaningful bonsai designs and displays. The text will examine in some detail the language of art as applied to bonsai. This examination of what some perhaps mistakenly call the rules of bonsai is meant to explain and expound upon the commonly cited fundamentals of bonsai styling that are referenced in other texts.

This book provides some relevant, important insights into human psychology and perception, but only to a point. The reader should understand, though, that and understanding of psychology and behavioral science is necessary for effective artistry.


Atama - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Atama Tree Parts

Japanese term for Apex.  See also " shin " and " ten " which appear to all have the same meaning.


Auxins - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Auxins Other

Any of several plant hormones that naturally promote cell elongation.

Synthetic auxins have been produced that can be used as herbicides and can target single groups of plants such as dandelions but do not affect others e.g grasses.


Axil - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Axil Tree Parts

The angle between the petiole (leaf stalk) and the stem of a plant. Hence axillary describes growth from this point.


Ayr Bonsai Group - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Ayr Bonsai Group Club or Group

Group of approximately 25 bonsai enthusiasts who meet on the 2nd Sunday of every month in

Alloway Village Hall,
Alloway,
Ayr. 

KA7 4PY

Contact : Jeff Banning (Convener) 07799477895 or jeffbanning@btinternet.com

See Scottish Bonsai Association website for details - click Web Link button.


Ayr Flower Show - (Bonsai Exhibitions)

Entry for Bonsai Ayr Flower Show Bonsai Exhibitions

Annual flower show event held in Ayr every August.

Attended every year by the Ayr Bonsai Group who put on a fabulous stand winning not only a large gold but also the Best Display Stand in Show. Held 2nd-4th August at Rozelle Park, Ayr.

As well as the stand there is also normally a bonsai competition.


Azalea (Rhododendron) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Azalea (Rhododendron) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Azaleas and rhododendrons are the same plant, both ericaceous (lime-hating), with thousands of cultivars. They are noted for the wide variety and vibrancy of colours of flowers which bloom mostly on "garden" specimens in mid-spring.

Most popular for bonsai are the Satsuki Azalea (Rhododendron Indicum) which are distinguished by often having multiple different coloured blooms on the same tree.

Also popular although less well recognised is the Kurume Azalea which is a hybrid of R. obtusum and R. kiusianum both native to the island of Kyushu, the southernmost island of Japan.

STYLE : Best in all sizes and all styles, except broom.

WARNING : Some fertilizers can be slightly alkaline so ensure truly ericaceous fertilizer only is used.


Azalea Gall - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Azalea Gall Pests and Diseases

This disease causes the leaves to thicken and become misshapen, like "ear lobes" which are, at first, covered by a pale green powder, later turning white.

The treatment required is to cut off the stricken leaves and treat the plant with Zineb or Captan preparations.

Image shown is by kind permission of RHS/Tim Sandall.


Notching to bend thick branches - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Notching to bend thick branches Procedure

The branch is weakened by cutting a V-shaped wedge across it though not all of the way through the branch. Then using coiled wire, or a guy wire, the gap is pulled shut. Protect by sealing with waterproofed tape. The procedure is best performed in early spring, or in late summer during the quiescent period when there is less bleeding and less heavy callousing.

 

http://www.happybonsai.com/bending-big-branches-notching

 



Letter

Baillie - Ian  - (Pot)

Entry for Bonsai Baillie - Ian  Pot

 

Nearly thirty years in making bonsai pots which are currently included in collections in Britain, Europe, Japan and North America and feature regularly in major exhibitions at home and abroad where they are used to compliment quality trees.

All pots are hand made and fired to stoneware temperature of 1260 degrees C so are frost proof. Ian's speciality is round pots thrown on the wheel but rectangles, cascades, slabs, crescents and freeform containers (and recently a new range of mame and shohin (size) pots) are also made, all with a range of subtle glazes specifically developed for bonsai.

Pots can be purchased at Bonsai Traders Association events and British Shohin Association events. Orders can also be placed by phone or email. A Facebook page has been started and can be found below and on the Web Link button.

Contact details:
Tel:01875 852 887
Email: ianwbaillie@aol.com
Facebook: Click (you will need a Facebook account to see the page)


Balanced feed - (Fertiliser)

Entry for Bonsai Balanced feed Fertiliser

Relates to fertilizers with equal proportions of Nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (NPK)


Bark - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Bark Growing Medium

See : Sterilized bark


Bark (tree) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Bark (tree) Tree Parts

Basically this is the outermost layer on the trunk and branches of trees.  

The Inner Bark is alive while the Outer Bark (termed rhytidome) includes dead tissue along with some elements of the live inner bark.

See also cambium, xylem, and phloem.


Bark beetle - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Bark beetle Pests and Diseases

These are black or brown, cylindrically shaped beetles which burrow under the bark and are particularly prevalent in conifers.

Fungus developes in the tunnels and the holes of emerging beetles appear. Bark may fall off and branches die.

Treatment involves removing and destroying infected branches, enriching the soil with phosphorous and potassium and spraying with lindane and parathion based insecticide in spring to kill beetles and at the end of winter to destroy larvae.


Bark cleaner - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Bark cleaner Treatments

Keeping old bark in pristine condition is a perennial problem, especially in the U.Ks damp climate. Because of the damp weather and regular watering, bark, which is very absorbent tends to be the perfect place for green algae to colonize.

After time this can become quite thick and if not cleaned away will progress to a lush carpet of green moss, under which the precious old bark will be decaying.

Bark Cleaner and Algae Remover solves this problem. The product harnesses the power of sunlight to lift algae away from the supporting surface, it then simply dries up and blows away.

Treatment involves spraying the affected area until it is evenly damp and putting it in the sun to take effect.


Bark Stripper - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Bark Stripper Tool

As its name suggests, used for stripping bark when creating sharis or other features.

May also be used for removing wood, thinning jins and clearing soft or rotten wood.


Basal shoot - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Basal shoot Tree Parts
A shoot emanating from the neck or crown of the tree.

Bedfordshire Bonsai Society - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Bedfordshire Bonsai Society Club or Group
Bedfordshire Bonsai Society
NR. LUTON BEDS.

Name:

Steve Lee - Secretary

email:

bedsbonsai@hotmail.co.uk

Tel No:

01234 765600

Venue:

Toddington Village Hall Toddington, Beds

Day:

Monthly:  Weds 7:30pm

Website:

Google Bedfordshire Bonsai Society


Beech (Fagus) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Beech (Fagus) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Deciduous tree which according to Wikipedia has ten species of which 2 variants are most popular for bonsai : European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Japanese white beech(Fagus crenata), the latter distinguished by narrower, darker and more pointed leaves than the former.

In both types the leaves change to russet brown in winter and remain on the tree until displaced by new buds.

STYLE : Best suited to medium/large size specimens (because of leaf size) in formal/informal upright, slanting, twin trunk, clump and group styles.

WARNING : Easily scorched by drying winds.


Beech (Southern) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Beech (Southern) Tree Type (Outdoors)

The tree commonly referred to as the Southern Beech because of its southern hemisphere origins is related to the genus "Fagus" but is now treated as a separate genus known as Nothofagus (see entry under this name for details).


Benomyl - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Benomyl Treatments

Benomyl (also marketed as Benlate) is a fungicide introduced in 1968 by DuPont.

It gradually became ineffective and ceased production in 2001. However, as DuPont's patents expired long ago and in some countries benomyl's registration has not been revoked, other manufacturers still produce it.

Commercial names for products containing benomyl are Agrodit, Benex, Benlate, Benosan, Fundazol, and Tersan


Berberis (Barberry) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Berberis (Barberry) Tree Type (Outdoors)

A shrub which grows no higher than 12 feet in the wild. May be deciduous, evergreen or partially evergreen depending on species. Evergreen leaves are green while deciduous leaves may be purple/green with bright autumn colours. Leaves can be prickly or smooth edged,. Flowers are yellow and berries come in a variety of colours.

STYLE : Suitable for most styles with exception of formal upright.

WARNING : Berberis flowers off 1 year old branches coming off 2 year old wood. If pruned too early it will not flower.


Berkshire Bonsai Society - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Berkshire Bonsai Society Club or Group
Berkshire Bonsai Society
READING, BERKSHIRE

Name:

Tania Clentworth,

email:

info@berkshirebonsai.co.uk

Tel No:

07817 418 708

Venue:

Barkham Village Hall

Day:

2nd. Wednesday


Bifenthrin  - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Bifenthrin  Treatments

Bifenthrin is a pyrethroid insecticide previously used in bonsai against red spider mite. Its use was banned in the UK during 2011.

Brands including bifenthrin include : Bayer Sprayday Greenfly Killer Plus, Bayer Multirose 3-in-1, Bayer Bug-Free, Bayer Bug and Disease Killer, Doff All in One Garden Pest Killer, Scotts Rose Clear 3, Scotts Rose Clear 3 Gun, and Scotts Bug Clear Gun


Bilobate - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Bilobate Tree Parts

Leaf divided into two lobes.


Binny Plants - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Binny Plants Dealer

Home of the Scottish National Bonsai Collection. 

Binny Plants is a specialist nursery and plant sales dealer who have kindly donated some space in a public area to allow the erection of a secure display area for the National Bonsai Collection. This enables wider viewing of the National Collection to members of the public during normal business hours.

Contact Details - Binny Plants,
Binny Estate, Ecclesmachan,
West Lothian,
Scotland,
EH52 6NL

Email: contact@binnyplants.com


BioChar - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai BioChar Growing Medium

Biochar is charcoal which is being investigated for its properties in carbon capture and health improvement in trees.

Investigations have shown that Biochar applied in the soil around Ash trees in the UK has "immunised" those Ash trees against Ash Dieback. Current thinking is that the trees are more than healthy enough to fight off disease and virus attacks.


Biogold - (Fertiliser)

Entry for Bonsai Biogold Fertiliser

Biogold is a world-famous Japanese organic slow-release Bonsai fertiliser.

Biogold pellets can be placed on the surface or inserted in the soil just below the surface around pot edges. Every time it rains, or water is applied, some of the Biogold will be dissolved and the feed become available to the roots. They last for several months, depending on the weather.

Biogold pellets give off a faint smell until watered the first time, after that they are odourless.


Bipinnate - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Bipinnate Tree Parts
Leaf configuration also described as doubly pinnate. A leaf consisting of a central axis and lateral axis to which leaves are attached.

Birch (European White) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Birch (European White) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Hardy deciduous tree with thin peeling white bark and medium sized "inverted teardrop shaped leaves with slightly serrated edges.

Prevalent all over Europe - in mountains in the south and in the lowlands further north.

STYLE : Suitable for most styles except literati but particularly good for group diplays. 

WARNING : Needs light and water.  Never allow soil to dry out


Birch - Dwarf/Arctic (Betula Nana) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Birch - Dwarf/Arctic  (Betula Nana) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Hardy deciduous tree shiny, copper coloured trunk and small "inverted teardrop shaped leaves with slightly serrated edges. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in July.

STYLE : Suitable for most styles except literati but particularly good for tray landscape (saikei) styles. 

WARNING : None recorded.


Birch - Silver (Betula Pendula) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Birch - Silver (Betula Pendula) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Hardy deciduous tree shiny, silver coloured trunk and medium sized "inverted teardrop shaped leaves with slightly serrated edges.

Prevalent in many areas of Scotland and sometimes referred to as "Scotland's Weed Tree" as it is a pioneering species in poor quality soil and will establish itself before other trees.

STYLE : Suitable for most styles except literati but particularly good for tray landscape (saikei) styles.

WARNING : None recorded.


Birch Species - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Birch Species Tree Type (Outdoors)

Birch is a hardy deciduous tree belonging to the genus Betula which contains more than 30 species.

They are typically rather short-lived pioneer species, the most common of which in bonsai are the Silver Birch ( Birch - Silver (Betula Pendula) ) and Arctic Birch ( Birch - Dwarf/Arctic (Betula Nana) ). (See these individual entries for detail).

Often known as Scotland's weed tree since there are so many of them in areas of poor soil conditions e.g. peat mosses.


Black Spot - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Black Spot Pests and Diseases

This is a sooty, black deposit on leaves, often affecting elm species and usuallly restricted to one side of the plant. The condition can be treated with Ortho-Phalton 50.


Blackmore Vale Bonsai Group - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Blackmore Vale Bonsai Group Club or Group

Meets at the Silver Band Hall, Bleke Street Shaftesbury, Dorset, England.

"Enjoy the company of like minded Bonsai growers. No matter if you are a beginner of advanced, one tree or many you will be assured of a warm welcome. Our Meetings are informal and informative.  We are here to help."

Meets on : Second Friday of month Starting at 7.30pm,  finishing at about 9.30pm.  The charge per meeting is £3.00.

Contact via phone on  

- Geoff  01373 823820

or

- Pat 01747 853475

or

email  - m5eay.geoff@btinternet.com


Bleaching deadwood - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Bleaching deadwood Procedure

Deadwood is bleached to a silver-white patina, naturally in nature by the effects of sun and rain.

In bonsai lime sulphur is applied to deadwood to mimic the effect and also act as a preservative to the deadwood. When applied the lime sulphur is yellow and smelly but it dries white and the smell disappears. The white then weathers to a more natural shade. (See also Lime Sulphur).


Bole - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Bole Tree Parts

An alternative name for the trunk of the tree


Bombycoid moth - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Bombycoid moth Pests and Diseases

Also known as "spongy caterpillars.

Signs of infestation are silken threads between needles or leaves and appearance of a sponge looking nest in the foliage.

Best treatment is to spray with contact insecticide.


Bon (pot) - (Pot)

Entry for Bonsai Bon (pot) Pot

Japanese term for the ceramic container or pot in which a tree is planted to create a bonsai (tree in pot).


Bonju - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Bonju Tree Style

Tree size sub-classification in the "Large" bonsai range, measuring 100-150 cms.


Bonsai (Peter Warren) - (Books and Articles)

Entry for Bonsai Bonsai (Peter Warren) Books and Articles

Author : Peter Warren

This brand new guide to an ancient art offers inspiring images of top trees from around teh world and practical advice on everything from choosing specimens - and how to style them - to what to do to keep your bonsai at its best for a lifetome of enjoyment.


Bonsai @ 16 - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Bonsai @ 16 Dealer

Suppliers of hand selected imported bonsai trees and quality accessories based in Cornwall.

Has a number of web presences at Facebook (link above), ebay (here) and a web site (here).

Supplier of British made annealed copper wire keeping the costs down due to reduced shipping and import costs.

Contact - Marcus
Mobile -  07855 300789

Unit 16
Dunveth Business Park,
West Hill,
Wadebridge
Cornwall


Bonsai Basho - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai Bonsai Basho Blogs and Advice

Described as Bonsai Community, Marketplace, Reference facility.

Basic Membership of Bonsaibasho.com is free to everyone; private members and traders alike where they can list and advertise trees and goods for sale.


Bonsai Centre - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Bonsai Centre Dealer

Appear to offer full range of bonsai trees and equipment, plus some services like re-potting - both on site and at home.

Contact - Court Farm Garden Centre
Old Kingston Road
Worcester Park
Surrey
KT4 7QH

Tel: 07740 203602


Bonsai Direct - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Bonsai Direct Dealer

On line site. Wide range of products - including extensive "gift" bonsai.

Contact - Bonsai Direct
Upcott Barns
Morchard Bishop 
Devon
EX17 6NG

Tel: 07815 836533


Bonsai Eejit - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai Bonsai Eejit Blogs and Advice

Professional and interesting Northern Ireland based Bonsai blog but which also contains some trees for sale.


Bonsai Empire - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai Bonsai Empire Blogs and Advice

This site shares information about Bonsai tree care covering the origin of bonsai, the most used techniques to grow a bonsai tree and general care guidelines.


Bonsai Farm (Lindsay Farr) - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai Bonsai Farm (Lindsay Farr) Blogs and Advice

Internationally acclaimed online, Lindsay Farr's World of Bonsai video series, available exclusively at this site.

Bonsai Farm is a bonsai nursery in Victoria, Australia.


Bonsai Focus - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai Bonsai Focus Blogs and Advice

Bonsai Focus is the prime magazine for the bonsai world, published 6 times per year, with a worldwide circulation.

Their website also includes special features, advice, galleries and offers of bonsai tools and supplies. Their website is available in several languages.


Bonsai Inspirations (Vol1 and 2) (Harry Harrington) - (Books and Articles)

Entry for Bonsai Bonsai Inspirations (Vol1 and 2) (Harry Harrington) Books and Articles

Author : Harry Harrington

Orderable on : http://b4mepublishing.com/

Bonsai Inspirations 1 and Bonsai Inspirations 2 have been written to provide interest and inspiration as well as information to bonsai enthusaists of all levels, whether they are novices looking to learn how to look after their first trees, experienced growers or bonsai professionals.

4.9 out of 5.0 stars on Amazon.com

"This book and Naka's 2 books are a necessity for any advanced beginner looking to take it to the next level..." 

"After being disappointed by a lot of bonsai books in my local library I bought this book. It's such a rarity to see something so thorough. I definitely recommend picking this up for anyone past learning the very basic aspects of bonsai."

"This book delves into the specifics of working on pre-bonsai and shows, very well, how these techniques need to be adjusted for each species needs."

"I read a ton of bonsai books and this book has the best section on building out branches and ramification................ Overall one of the best bonsai books out there."

 

 


Bonsai Kai - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Bonsai Kai Club or Group
Bonsai Kai
LONDON

Name:

Ed Brown

email:

mail@bonsaikai.org.uk

Tel No:

 
Venue: Room 21
RHS Conference Centre
RHS Horticultural Halls
Greycoat Street, SW1 
OR  

Venue:

Westminster Kingsway College
Vincent Square
London, SW1

Day:

Tuesday @ 7.00 pm

Bonsai Pot - (Pot)

Entry for Bonsai Bonsai Pot Pot

An essential part of the overall bonsai image. Pots come in all shapes and sizes but part of the art is selecting the pot which does the tree justice.

The most sought after pots are hand made and tend to come from Japan although there are a number of European pot makers.

The pot in the photo is from the hand of Dan Barton to be awarded for the "Best Accent" Award at the Shohin UK Exhibition - 24th march 2013 - Failand Hall.


Bonsai Presentations - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Bonsai Presentations Dealer

Paul Goff; artist, photographer and video producer provided advice, services and products designed to enhance display quality of bonsai trees. Sadly deceased in 2014.

 


Bonsai Soil - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Bonsai Soil Growing Medium

See Soil Mix.

Different tree types require different types of growing medium. Also different climates will also influence the soil mix with mixtures in wetter regions required to be freer draining than in drier areas.

Main components of any mix would be loam, sphagnum moss, peat, granite (or grit) and could also include any one of several growing mediums available as imports from Japan and the Far East (e.g. Akadama or Pumice).

Bonsai growers are notorious for having their own recipe for the "best" mix which is developed through trial and error and the bonsai grapevine. The truth is plants do not need "soil" to grow well, modern hydroponics grow plants in nutrient rich water. Subtrates range from peat through to crushed granite lumps and really depends on your regime of fertilising and watering your bonsai.

There is an excellent article on the Kaizen Bonsai web site which you will find liked from the Web Link above.


Bonsai Survival Manual (Colin Lewis) - (Books and Articles)

Entry for Bonsai Bonsai Survival Manual (Colin Lewis) Books and Articles

Author : Colin Lewis

Providing detailed profiles of 50 popular varieties of bonsai plants and trees, Lewis offers expert advice on selecting suitable species and step-by-step guidance on feeding, watering, shaping, maintaining proper temperatures, and troubleshooting common problems.

An essential guide to buying, maintaining and problem solving. Colin Lewis covers everything you need to know to design, grow, and successfully maintain attractive bonsai.  


Bonsai Traders Association - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Bonsai Traders Association Dealer

The Bonsai Traders Association was formed in 1995, to promote bonsai in the UK and to organize shows for the benefit of both the traders and the public.

Contains listing of shows and of members.

Contact -

Email: info@bonsaitraders.org.uk

Chairman : Harry Tomlinson.

Tel: 01159 205757


Bonsai Training Wire - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Bonsai Training Wire Tool

See "Wire (Types)"


Bonsai Tree Sizes - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Bonsai Tree Sizes Tree Style

A bonsai can be any size as long as it is potted and has the appearance of a full-size specimen tree. Sizes of bonsai can range in height from no more than 2.5 cms (1 inch) up to about 2.2 meters (4 feet) although, in reality, there is no prescribed limit.

There are 4 general classifications (Large, medium, small, tiny) and each of these size classifications are split into several sub-sizes.  However, not all sources agree on the exact sizes and names of the individual size categories, so you will find many variances in published sources and on the web.  Below is a sample but be prepared to come across other variants.

Large Size Bonsai (Dai or Daiza)

Sub-classification : Imperial - Up to 200cms,  Bonju - 100cm to 150cm tall, Omono 80-120cms tall. 

Medium Size (Kifu)

Sub-classification : Chu/Chuhin - medium to large, 40 to 60 cms tal, l Katade-mochi, up to 40cms 

Small Bonsai (Shohin)

Sub-classification : Myabi - 15 to 25cms. Gafu - 13 to 20cm Komono - up to 18cm 

Tiny Bonsai

MameShito - 2.5 to 7.5 cms tall. Keshi - tsubu, up to 2.5cms.


Bonsai Tree Species - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Bonsai Tree Species Tree Type (Outdoors)

This is a list of tree species provided by Wikipedia which are regularly used in Bonsai.

Most tree species can be used as bonsai to an extent. There are varieties that lend themselves more readily to living in pots and succumbing to the bonsai reduction techniques.


Bonsai Trees Southampton - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Bonsai Trees Southampton Dealer

Located near Swaythling Station, Southampton, offering trees, tools, equipment and lessons.

The Southampton Nursery is usually open from 10am till 5pm every day.

Contact - 

Tel: 023 8049 5729

Please call before travelling any distance though just in case.


Bonsai UK - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Bonsai UK Dealer

Online supplier of full range of bonsai trees and associated tools, pots etc.

Contact - Bonsai UK
7 Gaywood Road
Ashtead
Surrey
KT21 1BL

Tel: 01372 272802


Bonsai With Japanese Maples (Peter Adams) - (Books and Articles)

Entry for Bonsai Bonsai With Japanese Maples (Peter Adams) Books and Articles

Author : Peter Adams:

Bonsai with Japanese Maples covers methods and development of many trees enhanced by his wonderful drawings.


Bonsai, A Practical Guide to Aesthetics - (Books and Articles)

Entry for Bonsai Bonsai, A Practical Guide to Aesthetics Books and Articles

Author : Francois Jeker: Bonsai, a practical guide to aesthetics. Some artistic rules for making better bonsai, and critiques of several trees.

In two volumes, these are books dedicated exclusively to the major principles of Japanese aesthetics as applied to bonsai. It is practical and simple, yet full of ideas which will inspire and challenge your bonsai skills and understanding.


It is important to read Volume one before you tackle Volume two, which carries aesthetic principles to even higher levels.


Bonsai, Its' Art, Science & Philosophy - (Books and Articles)

Entry for Bonsai Bonsai, Its' Art, Science & Philosophy Books and Articles

Author : Deborah Koreshoff

This book has won acceptance as a standard on bonsai throughout the English-speaking world. It delves into the art and technique of bonsai styling, the text enhanced by line drawings and photographs.  It contains an extensive chapter on variations of form for many of the classical styles. A great source of bonsai horticultural knowledge.

         

Bonsai@16 - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Bonsai@16 Dealer

SUPPLIERS OF HAND SELECTED IMPORTED BONSAI TREES AND QUALITY ACCESSORIES.

Bonsai@16 offer a mixture of styled trees and pre-bonsai part trained material. The pretrained material is still imported from Japan so offers the best quality species and varieties that have been given many years of expert growing and training.

Starting with the right material makes the path to creating a mature bonsai both quicker and easier, while avoiding the frustration of trying to work with inferior material.

The retail outlet is based in the Cornish town of Wadebridge which has an ever changing selection of trees and a small but growing range of essential and useful accessories. The unit is just behind the town Tesco and well sign posted. There is ample free parking for customers.

For details of stock, opening times or to book workshop time -

Contact - Marcus

Tel: 07855 300789

Email: info@aqualabs.co.uk

 


Bonsaist - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Bonsaist Other

Active practioner of the art of bonsai.


Bordeaux Solution - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Bordeaux Solution Treatments

Invented in the Bordeaux region of France in the late 19th century this mixture of copper sulphate and slaked lime, is used as a fungicide to prevent downy and powdery mildew and other fungi.

Its function is preventative as it is ineffective after a fungus has become established.  

 


Botanic tree name - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Botanic tree name Other

Botanic names are usually quoted in the following format : Genus, species, sub-species,variety e.g. Juniperus chinensis sargentii "Shimpaku"


Botanical Name - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Botanical Name Other

Sometimes termed "Latin Name" or "Scientific Name", this is the name which is unique to the individual plant.  

The botanical names have two main parts : genus (generic) and species (specific) name e.g. Acer Palmatum.  They are descriptive of the characteristics specific to the plant.

The botanical name is closely followed by the variety or cultivar name e.g. Acer Palmatum "Deshojo"


Botanical terms - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Botanical terms Tree Parts

Various aspects of a tree have standard botanical descriptions e.g. aquifolius leaves refers to spiny (holly type) leaves.

The attached document from the web lists the terms for colours, scents, leaf forms, plant peculiarities, plant shape and origin of species. A handy reference table.


Bougainvillea - (Tree Type (Indoors))

Entry for Bonsai Bougainvillea Tree Type (Indoors)

A climber with oval, light green leaves and coloured, flower-like bracks (a modified leaf that supplements or takes the place of a leaf).

STYLE : Best suited to full or semi cascade, or literati.

WARNING : Insufficient light and too much or too little water may deter flowering.


Box (Buxus) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Box (Buxus) Tree Type (Outdoors)

The two Buxus species that are commonly seen as bonsai are Buxus microphylla/Japanese Box and Buxus sempervirens/Common Box. Pale, yellowish-brown trunk with fissured bark supports dense cover of small, oval, smooth-edged leaves.

STYLE : Informal upright but also good in groups and compositions.

WARNING : Avoid exposure to direct sunlight in summer and protect in a cold greenhouse in winter.


Branch Bending Jack - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Branch Bending Jack Tool

Branch bending jacks are specifically designed to enable thicker branches to be bent when even the thickest wire will not do the job.

Also termed Branch Bending Clamps.


Branch bending tool - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Branch bending tool Tool

A branch or jack used to bend thicjk branches or trunks


Branch Extension - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Branch Extension Procedure

Describes the process by which branches grow (or extend) if left unpruned.  Branch extension may be desirable where a new branch is being grown or an existing branch needs to be fattened.


Branch Pruning - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Branch Pruning Procedure

Selective removal of branches to improve the overall image of the tree.

The guidelines attached under the More button are taken from cutebonsai.com (see link).

 


Branch Splitter - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Branch Splitter Tool

Similar to a knob cutter but with straight, sharp edges.

Used to split branches or trunks lengthwise in order to make them more amenable to bending.

Also useful when creating large jins or cutting heavy roots.


Branch Structure - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Branch Structure Tree Parts

Describes the overall size, placement and form of the branches on a tree.

In bonsai there are some simple generic rules : branches should be evenly distributed around the tree, emerging from the trunk in a natural way, with the heaviest branches being the lower ones.

The Japanese term is Eda Bone.

See also Branch Pruning.


Bridgend Bonsai Society - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Bridgend Bonsai Society Club or Group
Bridgend Bonsai Society
BRIDGEND

Name:

Brymor Evans

email:

brynmor-evans@talktalk.net

Tel No:

01656 742008

Venue:

The Church Hall, Pyle Road, Pyle, 
Bridgend.  CF33 6PG

Day:

1st Tuesday of each month - 7:00pm


British Shohin Asociation - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai British Shohin Asociation Club or Group

An appreciation society to promote the cultivation, aesthetics and display of the smaller sizes of bonsai and to let people know just how wonderful and enjoyable this side of bonsai is.

The Association's goal is to promote the cultivation, aesthetics and display of the smaller sizes of tree. 

The Association is open to anyone with an interest in Shohin (size), Mame or Chuhin sizes of bonsai. 

A regular British Shohin Association newsletter is published to members and the Association holds an annual show/exhibition as well as exhibiting at major events in the UK.


British Suiseki Club - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai British Suiseki Club Club or Group
British Suiseki Club
 

Name:

Mark Moreland

email:

markmoreland@live.co.uk

Tel No:

07850 771201


Broadleaf - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Broadleaf Tree Parts
Foliage which is not a needle shape or scale-like. Includes oval, eliptical, lobed etc.

Brush - bark cleaning - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Brush - bark cleaning Tool
Wire brush used to clean trunk and branch of moss, dirt, flaking bark etc.

Bud Graft - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Bud Graft Procedure

Also known as Shield Graft.

In this process the bark of the tree where the graft is to be applied should be first well-soaked with water and a "T" cut should be made through to the CAMBIUM in the location where the new branch is required.

With shield/bud GRAFTING, instead of a SCION, just a small piece of bark with a well-formed heel is cut from the scion and inserted inside the "T" of the stock. This heel is the dormant bud lying at the join between the trunk and the leaf AXIL. The wound is bound with RAFFIA and coated with wax.


Bud trimming shears - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Bud trimming shears Tool

Known in Japan as Koeda Kiri Hasami. The long reach on these shears makes them ideal for trimming buds on needle junipers and pines. They are the best shears for very small bonsai.


Bud Type - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Bud Type Tree Parts

The beginings of a shoot which may develop into a branch, leaf or flower. There are many different classifications of bud type although the most commonly used terms in bonsai refer to their location : Terminal bud (located at the tip of a stem), Axillary ( located inside the axil of a leaf) and Adventitious bud (occuring elsewhere on the branch or trunk).


Bunjin - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Bunjin Tree Style

The only named bonsai style to originate in China, with Japanese name Bunjin ( sometimes also spelt as Bunjingi).

The Chinese word "wenjen" means "scholars practiced in the arts". Japanese bonsai growers translated this as "bunjin" which has no English equivalent so western growers use the name "literati" which derives from the Latin word for "literate" or "educated" people.

This style breaks many of the bonsai "rules", usually with several twists and curves in the trunk. In nature, Scots Pines often grow in this form.


Bury St Edmunds & Cambridge Bonsai Club - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Bury St Edmunds & Cambridge Bonsai Club Club or Group
Bury St. Edmunds & Cambridge Bonsai Club
Bury St. Edmunds

Name:

Derek Archer

email:

aryland68@gmail.com

Tel No:

01953 498874

Venue:

Morton Hall Community Centre
Symonds Road
Bury St Edmunds
Suffolk IP32 7EW

Day:

3rd Monday of month @ 7:30 pm
(Apart from December when the day varies)


Buttress root - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Buttress root Tree Parts

Large surface and  shallow roots spreading out widely from the tree to provide stability in areas where the soil nutrient levels are poor and concentrated in the upper soil levels.



Letter

bonsai_crown - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai bonsai_crown Tree Parts

The branches at the top of the tree that defines the shape of the tree.

See also: Tree Apex


Calcicole - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Calcicole Other

A tree which will not thrive in acid soil.

A tree which will thrive in acid soils is known as a calcifuge.

See also Calciphobe.


Calcifuge - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Calcifuge Other

A tree which will not thrive in alkaline soil. These plants are also described as ericaceous.

These plants require an amount of iron in their diet which is present in less quantity in alkaline soil, consequently, calcifuges grown on alkaline soils often develop the symptoms of iron deficiency as can be seen for example by the yellowing of leaves of Azalea (Rhododendron). Many bonsai growers add sequestered iron to the soils of calcifuge plants.

A plant that thrives in lime-rich alkaline soils is known as a calcicole or calciphobe.


Calcined clay - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Calcined clay Growing Medium
This is a form of earth baked into hard granules which allow good water absorption without a breakdown in soil structure.

Calciphobe - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Calciphobe Other

A plant not suited by calcareous soil, that tends to avoid calcareous soils, that grows best in acid soil.

A tree which will thrive in acid soils is known as a calcifuge.

See also calcicole.


Caledonian Bonsai Society - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Caledonian Bonsai Society Club or Group

For information of club meetings, venues and times,

Contact -Telephone Roger on:07944 518617

Lochgelly Meetings are held at the
Salvation Army hall,
Auchterderran Rd,
Loghgelly.

Cupar Meetings are held at:
Cupar YMCA,
Bonnygate,
Cupar.


Callous - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Callous Tree Parts

The raised roll of bark tissue that forms on the side of a wound to the tree.  


Cambium - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Cambium Tree Parts

Located between the xylem and the phloem, the cambium in the bark (tree) is the green material which shows if a twig is scratched.

During the growing season the cambium cells constantly divide, producing new xylem on the inside and new phloem on the outside. This process creates the annual rings inside the trunk of the tree.


Camellia Oil - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Camellia Oil Tool

Use to protect tools, clean and polish pots and clean away pine sap.

A traditional and organic way to to protect tools which come into contact with live tissue on a bonsai tree. Is also used to give a shine and polish to bonsai pots before the go onto a bonsai show display area.


Cammellia (Camellia) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Cammellia (Camellia) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Three main varieties : Japonica (Common Camellia): Shiny, oval, dark green leaves with red/white/pink flowers March to May. Reticulata: Long, narrow dark green leaves and big, funnel shaped pink/red/purple unscented flowers with 15-20 petals. Sasanqua : Drooping habit with lighter green, small, oblong, blunt-ended leaves with white/pink scented flowers with 6-8 petals.

STYLE : suited to every style, except formal upright and broom.

WARNING : Branches are brittle so protect with raffia. Do not leave wire on the tree for more than a month or two.


Candles - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Candles Tree Parts
This is the term used to describe pine buds which gradually elongate and then split into the pine needles which form the tree foliage.

Canopy - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Canopy Tree Parts

All of the uppermost branches that make up the top of the tree.


Captan - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Captan Treatments

A microfine, wettable powder used in water as a spray to control certain fungal diseases in fruit and ornamental trees.

Captan has been cited as a probable human carcinogen by the US authorities.


Cardiff Bonsai Society - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Cardiff Bonsai Society Club or Group
Cardiff Bonsai Society
CARDIFF, SOUTH WALES

Name:

Anne Campbell

email:

mail@observatorybonsai.co.uk

Tel No:

02920 484892

Venue:

Bethel Church Hall, Whitchurch, Cardiff

Day:

3rd. Wednesday


Carnose roots - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Carnose roots Tree Parts

Fleshy roots such as found on a Yew (Taxus Baccata).


Carving Tools - Hand - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Carving Tools - Hand Tool
Any tools suitable for wood carving. Specialist designs are available but adaption of other general tools like chisels or even a Swiss Army knife are useful alternatives.

Carving Tools - Power - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Carving Tools - Power Tool
There are a whole range of power tools to assist with bonsai ranging from the small hobby tools (as shown here) such as the Dremel, to more powerful and sophisticated tools. These are accompanied by a large array of carving bits tailored to different carving techniques/requirements.

Cascade Pot - (Pot)

Entry for Bonsai Cascade Pot Pot

Designed specifically for use with cascade style trees which are grown in a downwards direction.

They can be a variety of shapes (square, round, hexagonal) but are generally quite tall and slim.


Caterpillars - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Caterpillars Pests and Diseases

Caterpillars are butterfly or moth larvae which weaken the tree by feeding on tissue. These pests can do a significant amount of damage to the leaves of a tree if not effectively controlled.

Generally, the easiest method is to pick them off by hand and destroy them or alternativelty the application of a contact spray can also be effective.

There are several different types of larvae which are listed separatly under : bombycoid moths, goat/leopard moth, leaf-roller, leaf miner, geometer moth, and small ermine moths


Catkin - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Catkin Tree Parts
String of single sex flowers, without petals, often pendulous: found on trees such as alder, birch and willow.

Catrine Pottery - (Pot)

Entry for Bonsai Catrine Pottery Pot

Artist Peter Kleboe is a long time Catrine resident. A member of The Glasgow Group of artists his striking paintings and pottery are much sought after both locally and internationally.

No website available but can be contacted at :

email: peterkleboe@hotmail.co.uk.

Tel : 01290552596


Cedar (Cedrus) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Cedar (Cedrus) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Evergreen conifer with 5 common variants used in bonsai: Blue (glauca), Atlas (atlantica), Cyprus (brevifolia, Lebanon (libani) and Indian (deodara). Distinguishable by softer, droopier needles.

STYLE : Best in formal/informal uprights, groups and twin trunk, but deodora and atlantica can make striking semi-cascades.

WARNING : Protect from extreme temperatures.

Picture is : "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew"


Cedar - Japanese (Cryptomeria japonica) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Cedar - Japanese (Cryptomeria japonica) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Very tall evergreen native to Japan distinguished by red-brown string bark and blue-green foliage which changes to a bronze/brown tint in winter.

STYLE : Best in formal/informal uprights, groups and twin trunk.

WARNING : Clean out old foliage, spray daily with cold water and monthly with insecticide to prevent red spider mite infestation which can cause die-back.

Picture shown : "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew"


Celtic Knot Bonsai - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Celtic Knot Bonsai Club or Group

A Bonsai display group. Contact via website only.


Chafer beetle - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Chafer beetle Pests and Diseases
The cockchafer (3cms long) and garden chafer (15mm) feed on leaves during May/June and should be treated with insecticide. The soil living grubs of these beetles can seriously damage roots.

Chalk Bonsai - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai Chalk Bonsai Blogs and Advice

Bonsai of mostly native trees in southern England.


Contact - paul@fourie-online.eu
 

Chamaecyparis obtusa  - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Chamaecyparis obtusa  Tree Type (Outdoors)

See Hinoki Cypress


Charcoal - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Charcoal Growing Medium

Charcoal is a porous form of organic matter primarily composed of carbon. It is used as a soil conditioner to improve soil drainage. (See also "biochar").


Cherry - Flowering (Prunus serrulata) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Cherry - Flowering (Prunus serrulata) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Ornamental tree with small oval, pointed, serrated edged leaves and spectacular pink/white blossoms. which unfortunately last only a few weeks in spring.

STYLE : suited to every style, except broom.

WARNING : Do not water blossom to avoid damaging the petals.


Cheshire Bonsai Society - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Cheshire Bonsai Society Club or Group
A Bonsai Society in Cheshire, established 1987. Approximatly 40 members with a complete mixture of ages, rangeing from beginners through to experienced growers Meet on the 3rd Monday of the month (except December) at the Village Hall in Little Budworth near Tarporley. Meetings start at 7:30pm and usually finish around 10pm.

Cheshunt Compound - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Cheshunt Compound Treatments

A fungicide, which some consider as an organic treatment but which is now withdrawn in the U.K because of its high copper content  (although can still be found on some websites).  Used to protect seedlings from fungal attack.


China Mist - (Pot)

Entry for Bonsai China Mist Pot

A small family business established 1987, run by Alan Harriman & Steve Kitchman, producing high quality, handmade Bonsai dishes, with the trade name of "China Mist". Sells online.

Located at :
Bonsai Pottery
58 Station Street
Misterton
Nr Doncaster
DN10 4DE

Tel/Fax: 01427 890434

Email: alan.harriman1@btinternet.com


Chinensis - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Chinensis Tree Type (Outdoors)

Of Chinese origin e.g. as in Juniperus Chinensis


Chinese Hackberry (Celtis Sinensis) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Chinese Hackberry (Celtis Sinensis) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Japanese name Enoki. This is a small deciduous tree bearing shiny oval leaves and small bright orange fruits, which can be grown as indoor or outdoor tree.

STYLE : Well structurd branches and a fine tracey of twigs make this ideal for broom style.

WARNING : Must have a dormant period during winter or will die before spring. If kept indoors then move to a sheltered outdoor position for winter.


Chinese Hackberry (Celtis sinensis) - (Tree Type (Indoors))

Entry for Bonsai Chinese Hackberry (Celtis sinensis) Tree Type (Indoors)

Small deciduous tree with shiny oval leaves and small bright orange fruits.

This plant is fully hardy but often sold as indoor where it will thrive if a dormancy period can be engineered.

STYLE : Best suited to formal/informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, broom, root-over-rock, clasped to rock, twin trunk, clump, or multiple trunk.

WARNING : Needs a dormant period when kept indoors, otherwise tree will become exhausted.


Chinese Jade (Crassula ovata) - (Tree Type (Indoors))

Entry for Bonsai Chinese Jade (Crassula ovata) Tree Type (Indoors)

Also known as Jade or Money tree. Succulent plant, originating from South Africa, with rounded to pear-shaped grey/green leaves which sometimes are edged with a red tinge.

STYLE : Best suited to informal upright or clump.

WARNING : If leaves begin to wrinkle then soil is too dry.


Chiu - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Chiu Tree Style

Tree size sub-category in the "Medium Bonsai" range, measuring 41 to 91 cms. Referred to in Japan as a "2 Handed " bonsai indicating the number of men required to handle one.


Chlorophyll - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Chlorophyll Other

Green pigment in leaves which allows plants to absorb energy from light.


Chlorosis - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Chlorosis Pests and Diseases
Also known as jaundice, this is caused by a lack of iron leading to yellowing leaves while the leaf veins stay green. It should be treated by watering with sequestered iron.

Chokkon - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Chokkon Tree Parts

The main root of a tree that grows straight down from the trunk. correlates to "tap root" in English. (Note : not to be confused with "chokkan" which is the term used to describe the formal upright style.


Chopsticks - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Chopsticks Tool
Used during re-potting to ensure that soil is compacted around the roots and all cavities filled. Bare unpainted wood is best.

Chuhin - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Chuhin Tree Style

Tree size sub-classification within the "Medium" bonsai range, measuring 40-60 cms.


Chumono - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Chumono Tree Style

Tree size sub-classification in the "Medium Bonsai" range, measuring between 41 and 91 cms.  Also referred to in Japan as a "2 Handed" tree indicating the number of men required to move one.


Clamps - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Clamps Tool
Branch bending clamps are specifically designed to enable thicker branches to be bent when even the thickest wire will not do the job. Also termed Branch Bending Jacks.

Cleft grafting - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Cleft grafting Procedure
This involves inserting a small (3-5 cms) split in the end of a branch and the insertion of a scion from elsewhere on the same plant (or from another tree of the same species). The base of the scion should be "double chamfered" before insertion and then the join should be bound with raffia and smeared with grafting wax.

Clip and grow - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Clip and grow Procedure

Also termed the Ling Nam method "clip and grow"  is the term used to describe the bonsai styling proces where the approach is to allow growth to occur before pruning back to a bud facing the direction in which you wish it to grow.


Clump - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Clump Tree Style

See Sprout Style. Also known as Kabudachi or Miyama Kirishima


Coir brush - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Coir brush Tool
Small brush made of bound-together coco fibres, used for delicate cleaning of soil/moss surfaces

Compost - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Compost Growing Medium
Medium derived from rotted vegetable matter, in which bonsai or other plants are grown, often in combination with other matter (e.g. grit, sand, loam etc).

Compound leaf - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Compound leaf Tree Parts

A leaf consisting of two or more leaflets.


Concave branch cutter - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Concave branch cutter Tool

Known in Japan as Mataeda Hasami.

These are used to cut a whole branch at the trunk, leaving a concave cut to foster healing with minimal scarring. As the wound heals the edges will roll over to fill the the hollow and heal flush with the trunk.

These cutters are available in different sizes but as a general rule a cutter should not be used on branches with a diameter greater than half the width of the blades.


Conifer cone - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Conifer cone Tree Parts

A cone borne on conifer trees, the function of which is to facilitate reproduction.

The "female" cone (familiar woody cone) produces seeds. The "male" cones, produce pollen, and are usually much less conspicuous even at full maturity.

The individual plates of a cone are known as scales.

The female cone itself can take two or three years to reach maturity on the tree at which time it will split open and spill out the mature seeds. The cone having passed it's usefulness will then fall from the tree.

Trees which bear cones encased in a hard outer shell are members of the Gymnosperm family.


Copper Wire - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Copper Wire Tool

Wire is used to wrap around branches or used as a guy wire attached to the pot in order to allow them to be shaped and held in position while the form of the tree is stabilised.

The most common type of bosai wire used (for cheapness) is anodized aluminium wire which is brown on the outside with a silver "core". Alternatively annealed copper wire, which is heated red hot to soften it before purchase and is more expensive, is used by the more experienced growers.

Copper is naturally stiffer and when worked becomes stiffer again, continual bending of copper wire will quickly introduce that stiffnes which creates kinks in the wire that cannot be removed until the wire is re-annealed. There is therfore a little more skill required to wire with copper rather than aluminium and getting it right first time becomes paramount. Copper however "case hardens" to a much greater extent than aluminium.

Copper wire comes in varying gauges the most common being : 0.8mm, 1.0mm,1.25mm, 1.5mm, 2.0mm, 2.5mm and 3mm. It is generally sold in 1 Kg rolls because it is heavier than aluminium and so there is less length per gramme. However, because of its greater stiffness once applied smaller gauges can be used. It can also be obtained (less commonly) in 500gram rolls.


Coral spot - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Coral spot Pests and Diseases
This is a fungal disease which causes dieback in trees after which small coral-pink raised spots form develop on the deadwood. Trees are particularly susceptable when pruned in damp weather so when pruning, do so in dry weather and use wound sealant or cut paste. Do not leave dead wood to moulder and generate spores in damp corners of the garden. Image by kind permission of RHS.

Cordate (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Cordate (leaf) Tree Parts

Heart shaped with stem entered in the cleft at the base of the leaf.


Cornwall Bonsai Society - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Cornwall Bonsai Society Club or Group

Group of  enthusiasts based in the rugged county of Cornwall UK, that make up the Cornwall Bonsai Society (CBS). Individuals of all levels are welcomed to the club which prides itself in having a friendly and varied group of  members.

The meetings are held on the fourth wednesday of the month, January to November, at the Grampound community hall. Setting up from 7pm, running until approx 9.30pm. Car parking is free, right by the hall and all access is flat. 

All members pay a £10.00 per annum subscription and the meetings are £2.00 per person. (tea, coffee & biscuits are included). Members voluntarily bring items for a raffle to each meeting, adding a little more fun to the evening.

 

For further information please send an email to:info@cornwall-bonsai-society.co.uk


Cotinus (SmokeTree) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Cotinus (SmokeTree) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Cotinus (common name SmokeTree) comes in many varieties although it is Cotinus Coggygria which is used for bonsai.  It is a deciduous tree which takes its name from the flowers it produces which resemble a smoke halo. There are several varieties of Cotinus coggygria available with different coloured flowers including Cotinus coggygria Purpureus that has purple/pink blooms.

Style : Large/medium sized informal upright or multi-trunk.

Warning : Purple variety susceptible to mildew. Also susceptible to Verticillium wilt generally.

Location : Ful sun or partial shade.  Protection required below -5 degrees C

Repot : Every 1 to 2 years.

Soil : Basic soil mix.

Pruning : Trim to shape in growing season .  Branch prune early spring.

 


Cotoneaster (Cotoneaster) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Cotoneaster (Cotoneaster) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Common garden shrub with small, dark, glossy green leaves, pink and white flowers and orange/red berries in succession. There are two common varieties : horizintalis and microphyllus. They are evergreen in milder winters and deciduous in more severe winters. Picture courtesy of Dan Barton.

STYLE : Good for informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, root-over-rock, clasped to rock, twin trunk and clump.

WARNING : Protect from temperatures below -7C. Clean tools with meths after use on cotoneaster, which contains a toxin that is highly poisonous to some other plants.


Cousins - Craig - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai Cousins - Craig Blogs and Advice

Craig Coussins started Bonsai in 1974 and spent the next 20 years studying under the UK's leading Bonsai artist. During this time he travelled to the home of the late John Yoshio Naka in Los Angeles to learn from this Bonsai Master who not only was a great teacher but always gave generously of his time to Craig. John also visited Craig in Scotland.

He began teaching in June 1978 when he founded the Scottish Bonsai Association and soon after in 1983 he was a founder committee member of the UK Federation of Bonsai Societies, FOBBS.


Crab Apple (Malus) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Crab Apple (Malus) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Deciduous tree with many varieties producing blossom coloured from white through to pink. Fruit can hang on the tree until some time after leaves have fallen.

STYLE : Suitable for informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, twin-trunk, and clump.

WARNING : Crab Apple prefers deeper pot than normal.


Crenate leaf - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Crenate leaf Tree Parts

More or less rounded with narrowly toothed edges.


Cross - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Cross Other

A hybrid derived from cross-fertilisation  between species or varieties.


Cross-venulate (leaf veins) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Cross-venulate (leaf veins) Tree Parts

These are the small tertiary veins which connect the secondary veins of leaves.


Crown - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Crown Tree Parts

The branch formation at the top of the tree.

See also Apex


Crown graft - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Crown graft Procedure

A Crown or rind graft enables the formation of multiple trunks, or the restructuring of elderly trees with a sound root system.

Also an inferior or damaged crown can be repaired by removing the crown of the tree from the stock and inserting new branches. The approach is generally appropriate if a trunk is more than 3cm thick.

The process involves the "squaring off" of the main trunk and the creation of several vertical slits in the bark. The sections of bark between the slits is then prized away from the cambium. The scion is then inserted between the bark and the cambium with its single chamfered surface facing the cambium. The graft is then bound with raffia and wax applied.


Cuckoo spit - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Cuckoo spit Pests and Diseases
Cuckoo spit is a white frothy substance secreted by the immature nymphs of a sap-sucking insect known as a froghopper. The larvae of this insect lodge in spit-like masses on leaves and shoots and feed off the plant sap, weakening and eventually killing the affected area. The "spit" can be removed by wiping with a damp cloth or spraying with clean water. Image shown by kind permission of RHS/Wilf Halliday.

Cultivar - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Cultivar Other

Any named variety of a plant generally, but not exclusively, developed via propogation to develop unique colours or features.


Cuneate (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Cuneate (leaf) Tree Parts

Wedge shaped - acute at the base.  Almost like the shape of a goldfish without the tail.


Cut-leaved - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Cut-leaved Tree Parts

Leaves which are shaped in very distinct segments e.g. beech


Cutebonsai.com - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai Cutebonsai.com Blogs and Advice

Billed as "Bonsai knowledge website" with guidelines for various aspects of bonsai activity.


Cutting - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Cutting Procedure

A piece of a plant which has been removed from the donor plant and rooted in growing medium to produce a new plant.


Cypress (Chamaecyparis) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Cypress (Chamaecyparis) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Also termed "False Cypress" with most common variant being "Hinoki Cypress" with most common bonsai variants Nana Gracilis and Yatsubusa. They have fan shaped branches with evergreen, scaley, wax coated leaves edged in silver/blue which form in "clouds" on the branches. The overall shape is conical.

Other Chamaecyparis include Pisifera (Sarawa Cypress) which has dark green , scale-like leaves with white markings.

STYLE : Suitable for every style, except broom.

WARNING : Never allow to dry out. Foliage easily dislodged when wiring.


Cyst Eelworm - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Cyst Eelworm Pests and Diseases

See entry for : "Eelworms"



Letter

Dai - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Dai Tree Style

Tree size sub-category in the "Large Bonsai" group, measuring between 76 and 122 cms.  Also referred to in japan as "4 Handed" indicating how many men it would take to move one.


Dai ki (Oya ki) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Dai ki (Oya ki) Tree Parts

The parent plant - or parent tree in bonsai.  


Dai-Ichi Bonsai - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Dai-Ichi Bonsai Dealer

Offer a wide range of goods for sale on-line from their web site and "Ebay" but also from callers at their two centres within Hillingdon garden Centres.

Contact - Hillier Garden Centre,
Priors Court Road,
Hermitage,
Newbury,
Berkshire,
RG18 9TG.

Tel: 01635 200667

Contact - Hillier Garden Centre,
Henley Road,
Mappleborough Green,
Studley,
Redditch
Warks.
B80 7DR

Tel: 01527 850202


Daiza - (Pot)

Entry for Bonsai Daiza Pot

Daiza is a wooden base carved to fit a specific suiseki viewing stone.


Damping off - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Damping off Pests and Diseases

A group of fungal diseases which attack seedlings causing them to rot at the base, collapse and die.  May be combatted by spraying with copper based fungicide.


Danish Pink - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Danish Pink Growing Medium

This is a particular type of cat litter sold under the brand names Sophisticat and Tesco's Low Dust Lightweight Cat litter (small granules).

Not all cat litters are safe for bonsai as they may be impregnated with harmful chemicals. However, these brands above are widely used in bonsai - see cat litter in the "Growing Mediums" section.

The attached weblink provides info on sources and also some bonsai articles about its use.


Dansai - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Dansai Other

This is a type of "trademark" used to describe unique works by Dan Barton - generally to his pot styles but it has also been used with specific reference to a Scots Pine grafted by Dan from a witches broom found in Ashdown Forest, Sussex (Scots Pine var. "Dansai").


Dawn redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Dawn redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides) Tree Type (Outdoors)

This is a deciduous conifer native to Sichuan and Hubei provinces of China where it was discovered in 1941.

It is a fast growing tree (over 100 feet in the wild) with thick, spongy bark and bipinnate  leaves which are bright green in the summer turning to red in autumn before shedding in winter.

Style : Most suitable styles for bonsai are formal or informal upright.

WARNING : Dawn redwoods grown in the ground thrive in full sunlight, but as a potted bonsai, they will dry out too quickly if placed in direct sunlight. Place the bonsai in dappled or filtered sunlight. Be extra vigilant in the summer: Check the soil every day to make sure it is moist. The tree will quickly perish if allowed to dry out.


Deadwood - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Deadwood Tree Parts

Areas of dead wood on trees which immitate the action of nature where lightening strikes, heavy winds or storms have damaged and killed off a part of a tree.

Jins and Sharis are examples of deadwood. Some trees, especially old junipers can be almost all deadwood with foliage carried on a single live vein.


Deciduous Tree - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Deciduous Tree Tree Type (Outdoors)

A tree that loses its leaves at the beginning of its dormant season (Abscission).

Sometimes referred to a "broadleaf" trees but there are exceptions (like Larch) which have needles which are lost during winter.


Defoliation - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Defoliation Procedure

This is the process used to improve the density of growth and assist in the size reduction of leaves on a deciduous tree.

The defoliation process involves the partial or total removal of the established leaves normally in late spring or early summer in order to allow time for the new leaves to develop before autumn.

Complete defoliation should only be carried out every other year at the most, in order not to stress the tree too much.

The leaves should be removed by cutting with trimming shears at their base, leaving just the petiole (the stalk on which they grow) so that any goodness within the petiole can drain back and feed the dormant buds at their base.


Deltoid (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Deltoid (leaf) Tree Parts

Broadly a triangular shape with rounded tips.


Dentate leaf - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Dentate leaf Tree Parts

Toothed form , such as Castanea (chestnut)


Derby & District Bonsai Association - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Derby & District Bonsai Association Club or Group

Meetings offer a varied programme of hands-on workshops plus talks and demonstrations by members and guest speakers. Open to all ages and abilities.

Meetings on last Wednesday of every month except December from 19.30 to 22.00 at :
Grange Hall Community Centre,
Park Lane.
Littleover,
Derby,
DE23 6FX.

Contact Tony (01332 679584) or Rod (0115 9727141).


Derris - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Derris Treatments

This is an organically derived, short persistance pesticide, otherwise known as "rotenone" used to combat, greenfly, blackfly, sawfly (gooseberry, pear & rose) raspberry beetle, flea beetle, small caterpillars, thrips, wasps and red spider mites.  It was made illegal to use this after October 2009.


Derris Dust - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Derris Dust Treatments

Organically derived pesticide, rotenone (Derris) withdrawn from use is Oct 10, 2009.

Brand names included : Bio Liquid Derris Plus (spray), Doff Derris Dust and Vitax Derris Dust.

See full list of withdrawn chemical treatments under "Withdrawn Chemicals".


Dessication - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Dessication Other

A state of extreme dryness which in bonsai relates to soil condition and has the impact of severely weakening and even killing the tree.


Devon Bonsai - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Devon Bonsai Dealer

Neil Hutchings opened Springfield Bonsai Nursery in December 2009. In the heart of Devon, just north of Dartmoor. The nursery is easily accessible being just a quarter of a mile from Woodleigh Junction on the A 30. Less than 10 miles from Exeter. Junction 31, M5.

Advertised as having 1,000 trees in stock.

Contact

Neil Hutchings
Springfield Bonsai Nursery
Cheriton Bishop
Exeter
EX6 6JN

Tel: 01647 24866
Mob: 07833 247442


Diatomaceous earth - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Diatomaceous earth Growing Medium

Diatomaceous earth consists of fossilized remains of diatoms, a type of hard-shelled algae. There are a number of varieties, one freshwater diatomite mined in Denmark and often referred to as Danish Pink is used in cat litter which in turn can be used as a bonsai growing medium.

It is also used as a growing medium in other potted plants.

Bonsai enthusiasts use it as a soil additive, or may even pot a bonsai tree in 100% diatomaceous earth. Like perlite, vermiculite, and expanded clay, it retains water and nutrients, while draining fast and freely, allowing high oxygen circulation within the growing medium.


Diatomite - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Diatomite Growing Medium

A highly absorbent and water retentive rock used as a component of bonsai growing medium.

See also diatomaceous earth.


Dichotomous (leaf vein) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Dichotomous (leaf vein) Tree Parts

Veins branching symetrically in pairs


Digilate (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Digilate (leaf) Tree Parts

With finger-like lobes spreading from the stem.


Dioecious - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Dioecious Other

This is a type of plant with distinct mail and female sexes which needs the presence of both to generate seeds or fruits.  Examples include : Yew and most Juniper and Holly and Ginkgo.

 


Display Table - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Display Table Other

Display stands or tables are used to enhance the overall image of the tree.

It is important that dimensions, shape and overall visual weight of the table synchronise with the tree itself, and its pot.


Divided leaf - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Divided leaf Tree Parts

Leaf formed by seperate section emerging from a common base.


Division - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Division Procedure

A method or propogating shrubs by carefully dividing the root ball and replanting the seperated sections.


Dormant - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Dormant Other

The period of the year when little or no growth occurs - usually late autumn and winter


Dormant Period - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Dormant Period Other

The time when the tree has naturally stopped growing due to low temperature and short day length , normally winter in the United Kingdom.

Dormant trees may be kept inside for example a garage with no heating and little light as the tree does not require any. Make sure however that the roots of the tree are kept moist as the roots will dry out completely and the tree will die.

As soon as temperatures rise the tree should be removed from the darkened place as they begin to grow.


Dothistroma Needle Blight  - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Dothistroma Needle Blight  Pests and Diseases

In recent years, Scots pine has been badly affected by Dothistroma Needle Blight disease.  This can form needle discolouration and a significant slowing of growth, almost to the point of stand-still.  

Diagnosis of DNB can be tricky as many other factors can cause temporary or permanent discolouration, so Forest Research has produced this useful field guide to help with identification and it also gives details on where to send samples for diagnosis.


Dou buki - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Dou buki Tree Parts

Japanese term for new growth on a trunk or branch caused by pruning.


dou-nuki eda - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai dou-nuki eda Tree Parts

Branches (called "dou-nuki eda") growing from the middle of the trunk should be removed from your bonsai tree. It blocks good growth conditions.

 

See Branch Pruning.


Doug Mudd Bonsai Tables - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Doug Mudd Bonsai Tables Dealer

Doug offers a worldwide service supplying high quality hand made bonsai display tables in hardwoods which include mahogany, cherry, rosewood walnut and more.

All the unique tables are supplied with a protective plywood case.

Contact -

Email: dugmud@hotmail.co.uk


Downsview Bonsai Nursey - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Downsview Bonsai Nursey Dealer

Eastbourne bonsai nursery with over 40 years of experience offering the complete service for every bonsai grower with friendly advice and a relaxed atmosphere.

  • Bonsai tools
  • Bonsai pots
  • Japanese soils
  • Starter bonsai trees

Weekends & Bank Holidays: :12 - 6pm (dusk in Winter)

Weekdays: Visitors welcome visitors throughout the week with no obligation to purchase, but need to call to confirm visit prior to arrival

Address: 126 Wannock Lane
  Lower Willingdon
  Eastbourne
  East Sussex
  BN20 9SJ

 

Telephone: 01323 485656
Email: info@downsviewbonsai.co.uk

 


Duffett (Gordon) - (Pot)

Entry for Bonsai Duffett (Gordon) Pot

Highly regarded maker of Bonsai pots. Product sold via dealers rather than direct.


Dundee & District Bonsai Society - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Dundee & District Bonsai Society Club or Group

Dundee and District Bonsai Society has been in existence for over 10 years.

The object of the club is to further interest in the hobby of Bonsai within Dundee and the surrounding areas. The society holds regular workshops, talks and demonstrations by Bonsai experts.

Dundee and District Bonsai Society is affiliated to the Caledonian Bonsai Society which is a national group of bonsai clubs throughout Scotland. Annual membership fee is 15 pounds.


Dunkeld Larch - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Dunkeld Larch Tree Type (Outdoors)

This is a cross between the Japanese Larch and European Larch which was found growing naturally in Dunkeld Scotland at the turn of the 20th century. Known as Larix Eurolepis the hybrid grows faster than either parent and can be found at higher elevations on poorer soil.

See Larch (Larix) for details


Dwarf - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Dwarf Tree Style

A variety or cultivar that is smaller than the species tree but which retains all of the characteristics of the full sized species tree such as the Sekka Hinoki Cypress shown in the image.

Sea also the Japanese Bonsai Term Yatsubusa.


Eda - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Eda Tree Parts

Japanese word for branches.



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Earth Layering - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Earth Layering Procedure

This propogation technique involves removing a small section of bark from a low growing branch and anchoring it to the ground so that roots will sprout from the exposed area.

When this happens the branch can be cut away from the main tree and allowed to grow as an independent plant.

This is the propogation "method of choice" for sprawling plants like low rhododendron and creeping juniper.


Ectoparasitic Eelworm - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Ectoparasitic Eelworm Pests and Diseases

See entry for : "Eelworms"


Eda bone - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Eda bone Tree Parts

The overal branch structure or skeleton of a tree.  See related terms describing the position of individual branches : mae eda, ushiro eda, uke eda, kuitsuki eda and sashi eda .


Eda nuki - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Eda nuki Procedure

Japanese term for the process of removing unwanted branches.


Eda tanya - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Eda tanya Tree Parts

Japanese term describing a ramified branch forming a foliage pad.


Eda uchi - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Eda uchi Other

The hamonising effect of branch structure.


Eda wari - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Eda wari Tree Parts

Japanese term for a tree exhibiting several branches/foliage pads (see "eda tanya")


Eda zashi - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Eda zashi Procedure

Japanese term for the the process of removing unwanted branches.


Edinburgh Bonsai Group - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Edinburgh Bonsai Group Club or Group

Edinburgh -
Currie Scout Hall,
Lanark Road,
Currie, EH14 5JX

Convenor - Janice Tel No - 01620 825187.

Meetings - First Wednesday of the month 8pm . Member of Scottish Bonsai Association (SBA).


Eelworms - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Eelworms Pests and Diseases

These are worms which inhibit growth by attacking plant roots. 

There are several types :  Cyst eelworms : which pierce the roots creating galls which protect them.  Ectoparasitic eelworms : these may carry viral deseases resulting in yellowing of foliage from the base up.  Root-lesion eeelworms : these build nests which cause canker in the roots causing yellowing of foliage and possible fungal development.

Treatment requires removal of yellowing leaves and spraying of remaining foliage with a parathion based wash, plus mixing nematicides with the soil which should be prevented from excess wetness. 

 


Elliptic (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Elliptic (leaf) Tree Parts

Oval (almond) shaped


Elm - Chinese (Ulmus parviflora) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Elm - Chinese (Ulmus parviflora) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Small, round tree with a variety of bark types ranging from smooth, grey to cork bark, both bearing small, dark green, glossy leaves with serrated edges.

Claimed to be the most popular /best for bonsai. May be grown indoors, when they will not drop leaves in winter, or outdoors, when they will drop leaves.

STYLE : Suitable for all styles but delicate twigs and stout, long, flexible roots make it especially suited to broom and root-over-rock styles.

WARNING : Systemic insecticides and fungicides cause defoliation in Chinese elms. Fleshy roots need some protection from frost.


Elm - Chinese (Ulmus parviflora) - (Tree Type (Indoors))

Entry for Bonsai Elm - Chinese (Ulmus parviflora) Tree Type (Indoors)

Small, round tree with a variety of bark types ranging from smooth, grey to cork bark, both bearing small, dark green, glossy leaves with serrated edges.

Claimed to be the most popular /best for bonsai. May be grown indoors, when they will not drop leaves in winter, or outdoors, when they will drop leaves.

STYLE : Suitable for all styles but delicate twigs and stout, long, flexible roots make it especially suited to broom and root-over-rock styles.

WARNING : Systemic insecticides and fungicides cause defoliation in Chinese elms. Fleshy roots need some protection from frost.


Elm - English (Ulmus procera) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Elm - English (Ulmus procera) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Small, round tree with fissured, grey-brown bark bearing dark green, glossy leaves with serrated edges which are somehwhat larger than the Chinese elm. Foliage turns bright yellow in autumn.

STYLE : Suitable for all styles but delicate twigs and stout, long, flexible roots make it especially suited to broom and root-over-rock styles.

WARNING : Systemic insecticides and fungicides cause defoliation in Elms. Fleshy roots need some protection from frost


Elm - Japanese (Zelkova Serrata) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Elm - Japanese (Zelkova Serrata) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Strong growing deciduous tree with long erect branches growing from a short straight trunk. In winter the elongated, serrated edged, leaves turn from deep green to crimson/bronze, orange/yellow.

STYLE : Suitable for all styles but especially suited to broom and group styles (especially if trunks are not straight enough for broom).

WARNING : Keep the structure light and airy as congestion of fine twigs can cause dieback - sometimes of whole branch.


Elongated - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Elongated Tree Style

Japanese term : Goza Kake.

Distinguishing feature of this style is an exaggeratedly long number one branch.

This style is often placed over water in Japanese gardens


Enkianthus (Enkianthus) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Enkianthus (Enkianthus) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Native to East Asia and Himalayas.

There are 2 main varieties :
Campanulatus : Upright form with red branches and eliptical, acute, dentate leaves which are green on top and red underneath.
Perrulatus : Eliptical, acute, oval leaves which are bright green on top and with long veins underneath. They bear hanging, white, umbellate flowers in April/May before leaves form.

STYLE : Suitable for most styles with exception of formal upright, cascade, broom.

WARNING : Do not spray the tree when in flower.


Enoki - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Enoki Tree Type (Outdoors)

Western name Hackberry (Celtis) or Chinese Hackberry (Celtis Sinensis). This is a small deciduous tree bearing shiny oval leaves and small bright orange fruits, which can be grown as indoor or outdoor tree.

STYLE : Well structured branches and a fine tracey of twigs make this ideal for broom style.

WARNING : Must have a dormant period during winter or will die before spring. If kept indoors then move to a sheltered outdoor position for winter.


Ericaceous compost - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Ericaceous compost Growing Medium
Growing medium for lime hating plants such as Azalea, Rhododendron and Camelia

Ericaceous fertilizer - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Ericaceous fertilizer Treatments
Fertilizer suitable for lime hating plants.

Erin Bonsai - (Pot)

Entry for Bonsai Erin Bonsai Pot

Erin Bonsai specialises in high quality hand-made Bonsai and accent pots made for bonsai enthusiasts by Vic & Glyn Harris, a father & son team who have been selling bonsai pots professionally for over 12 years.

All pots are hand-made by us and are individually glazed, so that every pot is unique.

Mr Victor Harris,
41 Savoy Road Bristol,
BS4 3SZ,
UK

E-mail : mail@erinbonsai.com


Escallonia (Escalonia) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Escallonia (Escalonia) Tree Type (Outdoors)

A shrub with small, glossy, green leaves and small pink and white flowers.

STYLE : best suited to informal upright, slanting, cascade, semi-cascade, twin trunk, clump and group styles.

WARNING : None known.

Picture courtesy of Peter Thorne, Ayr Bonsai Group.


Esprit Bonsai - (Bonsai Magazines)

Entry for Bonsai Esprit Bonsai Bonsai Magazines

Esprit Bonsaï is a bonsai magazine which was founded: to speak of bonsai, but also to look at other related arts such as pots, companion plants, ikebana … and all in relation to the people, the artists who shape them and who, through their work, express their own sensibilities and their respect of and love for nature and the world around them. A philosophy and a vision of the art of bonsai that it wishes to share with the bonsai fraternity..


European larch - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai European larch Tree Type (Outdoors)

Larix Deciduaor the European larch,  is distinguishable by its pale, straw-like coloured twigs from the Japanese larch's red/orange new twigs which darken to almost purple in winter.

See Larch (Larix) for details


Evergreen - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Evergreen Tree Type (Outdoors)

A tree that retains its leaves throughout the year.


Ezo Grit - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Ezo Grit Growing Medium

A Japanese volcanic pumice with a very attractive buff colour.

Good moisture-holding capacity and frost proof so, long lived. Low C.E.C. Moderately heavy and very expensive due to transport and import costs. European produced pumice is every bit as good and much cheaper.

Taken from Kaizen Bonsai - see weblink for full advice on growing mediums.



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Fastigiate - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Fastigiate Other
Tree with erect branches set closely together (e.g. a Poplar)

Feeder Roots - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Feeder Roots Tree Parts

Those finer parts of the roots which collect the nutriets from the potting medium. Normally the fine roots at the ends of the thicker roots.

Part of the technique used in bonsai is to encourage the growth of fine feeder roots closer to the main trunk of the tree. This is achieved by cutting back some of the main roots to stimulate new growth closer to the main trunk and may take place piecemeal over a number of repotting sessions across a number of years..

Some planning and care must be taken in root pruning to achieve the desired effect since the nebari of the bonsai tree is also a major consideration, and the main roots are also used naturally as support and anchorage for the tree.


Fernatix - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Fernatix Dealer

Supplier of miniature ferns suitable for accent or under planting.  Sell by mail order but not on-line.

Write : Fernatix,
Stoke Ash,
Suffolk,
IP237EN

Email: mail@fernatix.co.uk


Fertilizer - liquid - (Fertiliser)

Entry for Bonsai Fertilizer - liquid Fertiliser
Acts more quickly than solids but heavy rain can flush it through the soil quite quickly, so not giving the plant time to absorb the nutrients.

Fertilizer - Solid - (Fertiliser)

Entry for Bonsai Fertilizer - Solid Fertiliser

Sold in powder, granule or block/cake form.

Applied to the surface they provide a gradual feed each time it rains and their visibility on the surface helps decide when a new application is necessary.

In order not to detract from the tree image or be eaten by birds, these fertilizers can be housed in specifically designed fertilizer baskets.


Fertilizer baskets - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Fertilizer baskets Tool

Used to enclose solid fertilizer in order to prevent disturbance by birds.

Each time the tree is watered a portion of the fertlizer is washed through the soil.

There a number of designs : some (as illlustrated) are placed over the top of the solid fertilizer and some have lids on top and spikes on the bottom so that the fertilizer is self-contained while the spike keeps the basket firmly positioned in the soil.


Fibrous root - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Fibrous root Tree Parts
A root system which contains many thin roots as opposed to a single tap root.

Field Maple (Acer Campestre) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Field Maple (Acer Campestre) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Small maple variety native to Europe with fresh green, three lobed leaves in spring changing to bright yellow in autumn.

STYLE : Upright tree suitable for most styles except literati and are good for shohin sized specimens.

WARNING : Needs protection from scorching by exposure to the hottest summer sun. Also, small specimens require frost protection in winter.


Fife Bonsai Society - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Fife Bonsai Society Club or Group

Fife Bonsai Society meets on the 1st Friday each month 7pm to 9pm in Cupar Baptist Church Hall. 79 Bonnygate, Cupar, Fife KY15 4BY

Fife Bonsai Society website: http://www.fifebonsai.org.uk/

 

 


Fig (Ficus ) - (Tree Type (Indoors))

Entry for Bonsai Fig (Ficus ) Tree Type (Indoors)

Varieties used for bonsai include : retusa and benjamina (weeping) in temperate climates and microcarpa and microphylla in warmer araes. Originating from South East Asia and Australia, with leathery pointed oval leaves and aerial roots, they are more closely related to the rubber plant than the large tree with edible fruits.

STYLE : Suited to all styles except literati and the aerial roots of the "banyan type" make them very good for root over rock.

WARNING : Figs dislike draughts or sudden changes in temperature or humidity.


Fireblight - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Fireblight Pests and Diseases

Fireblight is caused by a bacteria (Erwinia amylovora) which first attacks  the blossoms  progressing to the twigs and then the branches.  Flowers turn brown and wilt; twigs shrivel and blacken, the ends often curling.  In advanced cases discoloured oozing red/amber patches, form on branches.  The translucent amber or reddish ooze (see image) contains masses of bacteria.

Most susceptable are : varieties of pear and apple trees (including crab apple), mountain ash, hawthorn and cotoneaster. 

Treatment involves sparaying shortly after bud break, with systemic fungicide. Repeat the spray at one to two month intervals, more frequently in high disease situations.

Prune out infected branches 12 to 16 inches beyond the last visible signs of the disease on the branch. It is critical that the pruning tools be sanitized after each branch is pruned, so as to prevent spreading the disease form branch to branch.


Five needle pine - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Five needle pine Tree Type (Outdoors)

Species of Pine whose needles grow in clusters of five. Most common is white pine (Pinus Parviflora).


Flabelate (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Flabelate (leaf) Tree Parts

Fan shaped


Flit Bonsai - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Flit Bonsai Dealer

Provides workshops and trees for sale and a re-potting service.

Web site offers information on the history of bonsai, different species and how to propagate them, and care of bonsai.


Flowers - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Flowers Tree Parts

Trees which normally flower as part of their reproduction process will flower when grown as a bonsai.

The flower of the bonsai will reduce in size as the leaves of the tree/bush reduce in size although the size of the flower is not normally proportionate to the size of the reduced tree i.e. the flower seems disproportionately larger.

Flowers are the precursor to seed when the flower is pollinated. Flowers and seeds are sometimes left on the tree but sometimes they are removed. Some trees benefit from the removal of the flowers/seeds to direct most of the trees energy into producing wood and foliage.


Foliage Pad - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Foliage Pad Tree Parts

A mass of foliage on a branch, often referred to as a cloud.


Foliar feed - (Fertiliser)

Entry for Bonsai Foliar feed Fertiliser
A fertilizer capable of being sprayed on and absorbed by the leaves/foliage.

Forsythia (Forsythia) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Forsythia (Forsythia) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Deciduous shrub bearing bright yellow flowers on bare branches during spring which develop into dark green, lance-shaped, serrated edged leaves in late spring/early summer. It has pale brown bark and a stiff and compact nature when pruned.

STYLE : Ideal for formal and informal upright, slanting, cascade and semi-cascade and group styles.

WARNING : None recorded.


Forth Valley Bonsai Group - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Forth Valley Bonsai Group Club or Group

Club - Forth Valley Address -

Mayfield Centre,
FK7 0DB

Convenor - John Bannockburn. Tel No - 01295 731094 Email - rjohn-morris@lineone.net

Meetings - First Tuesday of the month 7.30pm


Frank Dowlat - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai Frank Dowlat Blogs and Advice

A series of YouTube videos from American bonsaist Frank Dowlat.

Explains many of the often asked questions about bonsai posed by people new to the hobby. The lectures are delivered in an informal and relaxed style but impart a wealth of bonsai experience.


Friable - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Friable Growing Medium
Readily crumbled - with reference to soil

Fruit - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Fruit Tree Parts

This is the part of the tree that contains its seed in the form of pods or berries.


Fuchsia - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Fuchsia Tree Type (Outdoors)

There are approximatly 110 recognized species of Fuchsia mostly from South America, but with some occurring up through Central America to Mexico, and also several from New Zealand to Tahiti. Small leaved varieties such as Mycrophylla and Tom Thumb and Lady Thumb are best for bonsai.

STYLE : Suited for informal upright, cascade/semi-cascade, slanting and root over rock.

WARNING : Although they can be wired at any time, branches are brittle and easily snapped. Best wiring time is winter after soil has been allowed to dry out a little, making branches a bit more flexible.


Fukien Tea (Carmona microphylla) - (Tree Type (Indoors))

Entry for Bonsai Fukien Tea (Carmona microphylla) Tree Type (Indoors)

A tender, evergreen shrub with buff to brown bark bearing a dense canopy of shiny, dark green leaves and also tiny white flowers all year round, if sufficiently high temperatures and humidity can be provided.

STYLE : Best suited to informal upright but prolific shoots mean that almost any shape can be obtained.

WARNING : Will die if exposed to any frost at all.


Fukinagashi Kengai - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Fukinagashi Kengai Tree Style
Cascade with windswept branches or trunk

Fungal Disease - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Fungal Disease Pests and Diseases

Virus infection exhibited by leaves or flowers that are distorted or discoloured.  Examples include mildew, rust, black spot and others.


Fungicide - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Fungicide Treatments
A chemical used to control diseases caused by fungi.

Fungus - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Fungus Pests and Diseases
A primitive form of plant life which is the most common cause of infectious diseases e.g. mildew/rust.

Fungus gnats - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Fungus gnats Pests and Diseases

Fungus gnats are small, dark, short-lived fliesthe larvae of which feed on plant roots and fungi. 

Fungus gnats are typically harmless to healthy plants but can inflict extensive damage to seedling.  Their presence can also indicate more serious problems, particularly overwatering; they may be feeding on roots that have sat in drain water too long and are thus rotting, or the gnats may be attracted to fungus growing in saturated topsoil. Consequently, allowing the soil to dry may reduce their numbers.


Fuschia (Fuschia) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Fuschia (Fuschia) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Shrub originating from South and Central America now grown widely as garden and greenhouse plant for their colourful flowers. Only small leaved varieties such as macrophylla are suitable for bonsai.

STYLE : best suited to small/very small size specimens in informal upright, cascade, semi-cascade, slanting and root-over-rock styles.

WARNING : Branches can be brittle and snap easily.


Futo-miki - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Futo-miki Tree Style
Giant, or grotesque trunk.


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Gafu - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Gafu Tree Style

Tree size sub-classification in the "Miniature" bonsai range, measuring 13-20 cms


Gafu-bonsai - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Gafu-bonsai Tree Style

Bonsai sized under 25 cms.


Gafu-Ten - (Bonsai Exhibitions)

Entry for Bonsai Gafu-Ten Bonsai Exhibitions

Shohin bonsai exhibition held annually in Kyoto in January.


Galls - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Galls Pests and Diseases

These are swollen, mis-formed leaves caused by a variety of pests of fungi.

Some are specific to tree types e.g. oak apple or azalea gall.

They are generally harmless in themselves and should be removed and burned.

See also "Yew tree gall"


Gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides) - (Tree Type (Indoors))

Entry for Bonsai Gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides) Tree Type (Indoors)

Tender, evergreen shrub with strongly fragrant flowers which appear in early/late summer. Leaves are glossy green and lance shaped, borne in whorls of 3.

STYLE : Suited to informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, root-over-rock, twin-trunk, clump and multiple trunk.

WARNING : This lime-hating plant needs lime free water and ericaceous soil and fertilizer.


Gardening Scotland - (Bonsai Exhibitions)

Entry for Bonsai Gardening Scotland Bonsai Exhibitions

Venue for the largest exhibition of Bonsai in the Scottish Calendar. Gardening Scotland is Scotland's National Celebration of Gardening and Outdoor Living.

If you want to find the best plants, catch the latest gardening trends, find a designer to transform your own garden or ask the experts about anything from growing vegetables to keeping bees, then this is the one Show that you won't want to miss!


Geometer moth - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Geometer moth Pests and Diseases

These caterpillars eat foliage leaving holes in the buds and silken threads between the foliage and the soil, via which they climb down.

Treatment includes treating with oil-based products at winters end in order to destroy any eggs and applying lindane or parathion based insecticides in spring.


George's Japanese Garden - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai George's Japanese Garden Blogs and Advice
Not really a dealer, nor a club. Site is a walk-through of George's gardens which include many Japanese features in addition to some bonsai.

Germination - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Germination Procedure

The point of growth initiation of a seed with the seed developing initial roots.


Gi sei shi (sacrifice branch) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Gi sei shi (sacrifice branch) Tree Parts

Term used to describe a branch left to grow with the purpose of promoting overall growth of the tree as part of the development of a bonsai.  Also known as a "sacrifice" branch, this would be removed or pruned once its purpose was served.


Gingko Biloba (Maidenhair tree) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Gingko Biloba (Maidenhair tree) Tree Type (Outdoors)

This is a deciduous tree, once thought to be extinct but re-discovered in China in the 17th century.

Columnar shaped tree with dense upright branches which bear distinctively shaped leaves which turn from green to pale yellow in autumn. Although the Ginkgo is more like a conifer than a deciduous tree it is neither.  Recent research suggests that it has a unique position which is much closer to the cycads than to either conifers or deeciduous trees.

STYLE : best suited to formal upright and clump styles. 

WARNING : Keep tree from prolonged freezing. Fleshy roots can "explode" as a result of excess water expanding when it freezes.


Girdling - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Girdling Procedure

Also referred to as "ring-barking". The removal of a band of bark (which can vary in width) from all around the trunk of a tree or branch when air-layering or trying to encourage new roots to form at the point of the girdle.


Girth - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Girth Other

The circumference of the tree trunk as measured just above the root base.


Giseishi - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Giseishi Tree Parts

This is the Japanese term for a sacrifice branch e.g. a branch grown specifically to help thicken the trunk of the tree but which will not form part of the final image and so will be removed when the desired trunk thickness has been acheived.


Glabrous leaf - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Glabrous leaf Tree Parts

Smooth - without hairs


Glasgow Bonsai Group - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Glasgow Bonsai Group Club or Group

Glasgow Group not currently running.  Nearest groups are Ayrshire and Lanarkshire.


Glaucus - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Glaucus Other

Grey-blue. Often used to describe foliage e.g. Cedrus glauca atlantica


Glenbrook Garden Bonsai Centre - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Glenbrook Garden Bonsai Centre Dealer

No specific site. Looks like this may now be closed.

Location : Glenbrook Garden Bonsai Centre
Stone-Edge Batch,
off Clevedon Road
Tickenham
Clevedon
BS21 6SE

Tel: 01275 858596


Go-shin - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Go-shin Other

Name given to a planting of junipers donated by John Naka to The Washington Collection - considered a masterpeice.  The term means "guardian of the spirit".

 


Goat moth - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Goat moth Pests and Diseases

Also known as Leopardmoth. These are red or yellow caterpillars that burrow into bark or leaves, tunnelling upwards and leaving a small mound of sawdust at the entry point.

Treatment involves cutting away the infected part of the tree and insertion of iron wire with carbon disulphide soaked cottonwool attached.


Gobo-ne - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Gobo-ne Tree Parts

Japanese term for tap root.  See also "chokkon".


Gohan Yose - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Gohan Yose Tree Style
Group planting of 5 trees

Gokan - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Gokan Tree Style

Denotes a "5 trunks on the same tree" style.


Golden Larch - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Golden Larch Tree Type (Outdoors)

Isn't a larch (larix) at all and is more closely related to Keteleeria, Abies and Cedrus.

Officially known as Pseudolarix Amabilis it is the sole member of the species.

The leaves of Pseudolarix are larger than Larix (Larch).

Called the Golden Larch because of its autumn colours which helps lead to the confusion.


Goro tsuchi - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Goro tsuchi Growing Medium

The coarse bonsai medium used at the bottom of the pot to provide good drainage and aeration.

 


Goshiki - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Goshiki Other

Five-color suiseki stones (Traditionally a mixture of red, yellow, and green with either gray, blue, purple, white or black.)

Other classifications of suiseki by colour are :
Kuro-ishi Black stones
Maguro-ishi Jet-black stones
Aka-ishi Red stones
Ao-ishi Blue stones
Murasaki-ishi Purple stones
Ogon-seki Golden-yellow stones
Kinko-seki Yellow-red stones


Goyomatsu  - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Goyomatsu  Tree Type (Outdoors)

Japanese term for Japanese white pine (pinus parviflora).

"Matsu" means pine, “Goyo” means “five-needle"


Goyomatsu - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Goyomatsu Tree Type (Outdoors)

The Latin name for Japanese white pine (aka Japanese five needle pine) is Pinus parviflora. The Japanese name is Goyo Matsu. Matsu is pine,  “Goyo” means “five-needle”.

See Pine - Whiter (Pinus parviflora, pinus pentaphylla) for details.


Goza Kake - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Goza Kake Tree Style

Referred to as "Elongated style" in the West. Distinguishing feature of this style is an exageratedly long number one branch.

This style is often placed over water in Japanese gardens


Graft - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Graft Procedure

When a stem of one plant is joined to another to grow then this is termed a graft.  There are various methods of grafting , see : thread grafting and approach grafting


Grafting knife - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Grafting knife Tool
Used for grafting, preparing cuttings and and any other jobs requiring a fine cutting edge. Comes in both right handed and left handed versions since only one edge is sharpened.

Graham Potter Videos - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai Graham Potter Videos Blogs and Advice
Collection of instructional videos and various aspects of bonsai presented by Graham Potter of Kaizan Bonsai.

Green Dream - (Fertiliser)

Entry for Bonsai Green Dream Fertiliser

Slow release compound fertiliser with an analysis of N.6% - P.5% - K.7%, containing only natural ingredients (organic matter from blood meal, feather meal, cocoa shells, dried organic seaweed and vinasse).

Applied to surface soil, providing season long nutrient release without risk of scorching.

Available in different varieties : Original/Seaweed/Fish Emulsion, Liquid Organic and ericaceous.

Photo courtesy of Kaizen Bonsai where more info is available.


Green Lawns Bonsai - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Green Lawns Bonsai Dealer

In operation since 2000 and now has a large indoor area for Bonsai trees, pots, tools and other merchandise. No online offerings.

Contact - Green Lawns Bonsai
Hadleigh Road
Boxford,
Nr Sudbury
CO10 5JH


Greenwood Bonsai - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Greenwood Bonsai Dealer

Originally established by the renowned bonsai artist and author, Harry Tomlinson, in 1978 and now run by his sons Corin and Paul providing the bonsai community with quality trees and bonsai care / styling advice.

Contact - Greenwood Bonsai Studio
Ollerton Road,
Arnold,
Nottingham,
NG5 8PR

Tel: 0115 9205757


Grey mould - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Grey mould Pests and Diseases

This fungus (Botrytis cinerea) appears on the leaves of plants and is caused by high humidity.

Treatment: increased ventilation around the plant and the application of a systemic fungicide are the recommended remedies.

Image shown by kind permission of RHS.


Grit - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Grit Growing Medium

Horticultural Grit is a grit with neutral pH which is used for improving soil drainage, top dressing lawns and as a planting base for alpine, cacti and rock plants.  It is used also in bonsai but has tended to be replaced by lighter materials (such as pumice/moler clay) which do the same job.


Ground Layering - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Ground Layering Procedure

This is the process of creating new plants by lowering branches of existing plants down into the ground and pinning them in place so that they will root at that point and can then be separated from the parent tree.

This is most suitable for plants with low hanging branches e.g forsythia, pyracantha, and pine


Growing medium - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Growing medium Growing Medium

Bonsai trees can be grown in almost any type of soil but to keep them in the best of health they must be grown in a suitable soil mix.

The soil's function is to hold sufficient nutrients, water and air to provide a regular supply of these three vital components to the roots of the tree.

In order to achieve the optimum conditions to match tree requirements and local climatic conditions the growing medium is often a mix of two or more key ingredients with growers developing their own special recipes. The basic consituents potentially include grit (which can come in several grades), loam and humus - or one of several different mediums imported from Japan (Akadama, Kiryu, Kanuma).

Given that these imported mediums can be quite expensive, a number of growers have developed the use of alternatives, one of which is cat litter (see cat litter for more information).

 

There is an excellent article on the Kaize Bo9nsai web site which you will find linked from the Web Link above.


Gyaku eda - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Gyaku eda Tree Parts

Branches (called "gyaku eda") growing in the opposite way (i.e. backwards) to the branch they are growing from should be removed from your bonsai tree.

 

See Branch Pruning.


Gymnosperm. - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Gymnosperm. Tree Parts

A tree or bush where the seeds are encased in a hard outer shell e.g pine



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Ha gari - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Ha gari Procedure

Japanese term for leaf pinching.


Ha mizu - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Ha mizu Procedure

Japanese term for moistening leaves with water - or misting.


Ha zashi - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Ha zashi Procedure

Japanese term for leaf pruning.


Hachi-uye - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Hachi-uye Tree Style

Tree size classification within the "Large Bonsai" category, measuring between 102 and 152 cms.  

Also referred in Japan as "6 Handed" indicating how many men it would take to carry it.


Hachiutsuri - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Hachiutsuri Other

Term used to describe the situation where the tree and the pot are in perfect harmony, each complementing the beauty and charm of the other.


Hagari - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Hagari Procedure

Japanese term for pinching of e.g. branch tips


Handmade Bonsaipots - (Pot)

Entry for Bonsai Handmade Bonsaipots Pot

Aims to provide a one off selection of Quality Hand Made Bonsai Pots. Each one is unique and can not be recreated. You will find Handmade pots created by: Bryan Albright, Derek Aspinall, Ian Baillie, Dan Barton, Gordon Duffett, Erin Pottery, John Pitt, Tongre Ceramics, Wallsall Studio Ceramics amongst others.


Handmade-bonsaipots - (Pot)

Entry for Bonsai Handmade-bonsaipots Pot

This site provides a selection of Quality Hand Made Bonsai Pots, each of which is unique.

Many pieces are Ceramic Art and can be enjoyed either with a tree in or in their own right for decorative purposes.

You will find Handmade pots created by: Bryan Albright, Derek Aspinall, Ian Baillie, Dan Barton, Gordon Duffett, Erin Pottery, John Pitt, Tongre Ceramics, Wallsall Studio Ceramics amongst others.


Harden off - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Harden off Treatments
The progressive adaptation of a tender plant to the full brunt of harsh outdoor conditions.

Hardy - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Hardy Other

A plant which will withstand overwintering without any protection such as the bonsai Cotoneaster (cotoneaster) shown on the left.


Hari gane kaki - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Hari gane kaki Procedure

Japanese term for branch wiring.


Hasami Zukuri - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Hasami Zukuri Procedure

The process of completing a tree without the use of wire i.e. literally means scissor work.

This is done in order to bring about a more natural look to the tree, and tree shape is achieved only by pruning with scissors. The scissors work process is said to bring out the quality of the tree branches in accordance with the age of the tree.

Known in the west as Pinch and Grow.

 


Hastate (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Hastate (leaf) Tree Parts

Elongated trianle with basal lobes.  Very like a child-like rocket shape.


Hawthorn (Crataegus) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Hawthorn (Crataegus) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Deciduous tree with small green leaves, prickly branches and profuse blossom from white (in common hawthorn : crataegus monogyna) through pink to deep red (in the hybrids : cratagaegus lavigata - especially Paul's Scarlet), followed by orange/red berries.

STYLE : Suitable for most styles except formal upright or broom. 

WARNING : Spray to prevent mildew. Also spray with fungicide at bud break to prevent peach leaf curl. Picture courtesy of Green Dragon Bonsai.


Heartwood - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Heartwood Tree Parts

This is the central core of the trunk. It is dead and has the sole function of providing structural strength to the tree


Hemlock - Western/Eastern (Tsuga heterophylla/canadensi - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Hemlock - Western/Eastern (Tsuga heterophylla/canadensi Tree Type (Outdoors)

Evergreen conifer. Western/Eastern varieties distinguished by pyramid versus "bushy" shape with drooping branches being more evident on the Western variety. Both bear soft, short, needle-like leaves which darken with age.

STYLE : Suitable for most styles, except broom, and from small to extra large. 

WARNING : None - unless someone knows better!


Holly - Japanese Deciduous (Ilex Serrata) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Holly - Japanese Deciduous (Ilex  Serrata) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Deciduous tree with thick, grey, fleshy bark and small leaves, similar to apple or cherry leaves in shape, which turn to orange/red in autumn. They may produce red, yellow or white berries if fertilized by a male tree.

STYLE : best suited to all styles, except possibly broom.

WARNING : Berries will only form on a female tree if there is a male tree present to fertilize it.


Holly - Japanese evergreen (Ilex crenata) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Holly - Japanese evergreen (Ilex crenata) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Deciduous tree, slow growing with box-like leaves and small white flowers. They may produce black berries if fertilized by a male tree.

STYLE : best suited to all styles, except possibly broom.

WARNING : Berries will only form on a female tree if there is a male tree present to fertilize it. Brittle stems require careful pruning.


Hon bachi age - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Hon bachi age Other

A tree displayed in a high class bonsai dish for an exhibition


Hon Non Bo - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Hon Non Bo Tree Style

The Vietnamese equivalent of saikei (landscape). Hon means island, Non means mountain and Bo means a combination of water, mountains and forest. 


Honey Fungus - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Honey Fungus Pests and Diseases

Also termed Armillaria or Root Rot.  A serious fungal condition that, given the difficulty of eradication,  can result in death of the tree.

Symptons are roots which turn brown and begin to rot, shoots become stunted, leaves/needles drop and branches die.  In autumn yellow capped fungi with brown scales and white galls will appear at the base of the tree. 


Honey Locust (Gleditsia Triacanthos) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Honey Locust (Gleditsia Triacanthos) Tree Type (Outdoors)

An elegant, hardy tree with delicate fern-like leaves that turn pale yellow in autumn. Branches are covered in distinctive three pointed thorns.

STYLE : Suitable for informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade or twin trunk.

WARNING : None recorded.


Hora-gaki - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Hora-gaki Other

Lightning shaped branch.


Hornbeam (Carpinus) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Hornbeam (Carpinus) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Comes in "Japanese" *(carpinus laxiflora) and Korean (carpinus turczaninowii) variants, which are distinguishable by their bark, which is darker grey in the Korean variant. Both have smallish, oval leaves.

STYLE : Suitable for most styles, except formal upright.

WARNING : Never let the soil dry out.


Horse Chestnut - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Horse Chestnut Tree Type (Outdoors)

The horse chestnut (Aesculus Hippocastanum) comes from Eastern Europe and the Caucuses.

STYLE : suited to every style, except formal upright and broom.

WARNING : One of the few trees best grown from seed as it is fast growing and will help to avoid ugly scars.


Humidity - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Humidity Other

The amount of moisture in the atmosphere.


Hybrid - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Hybrid Other

A hybrid is the result of cross-pollination of two different varieties of a plant, aiming to harness the best characteristics of each of the parents. Cross-pollination may occur naturally or be artificially induced.

Very common examples of hybrids are found in the Acer Palmatum and Rhododendron families (e.g. Satsuki Azalea) and many of these hybrids have been further cross pollinated to produce hundreds of different types.


Hyuga - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Hyuga Growing Medium

This is the Japanese term for Pumice which is a volcanic ash which has some ability to absorb water but retain air space so promoting good root growth.

Kanuma is another type of Japanese pumice.

 


John Hanby Bonsai School - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai John Hanby Bonsai School Dealer

Located within Newstead Bonsai Centre. Described as : The UK's number one bonsai school with the biggest list of courses held in one of the best studios in Europe, providing an intimate and relaxed learning experience.

Contact -  John Hanby Bonsai School
Newstead Lane (B6428)
Havercroft
Wakefield
West Yorkshire
WF4 2HW


Mamizu - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Mamizu Procedure

Japanese term for misting of foliage in order to increase humidity in the growing area.



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Ichi no eda - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Ichi no eda Tree Parts

Japanese term denoting the lowest branch of a bonsai tree. See also Sachi eda and Uke eda.


Iki michi - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Iki michi Tree Parts

Japanese term for the live part of the tree trunk. OfTEN seen on juniper where the red BARK contrasts vividly with the pale shari.


Ilicifolius - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Ilicifolius Tree Parts
Holly-like leaves.

Imperial - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Imperial Tree Style

Tree size categorisation generally between 152 and 203 cms tall.  Also termed "8 Handed" in Japan signifying that it would take 8 men to lift the pot.


Indigenous Trees (Scotland) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Indigenous Trees (Scotland) Tree Type (Outdoors)

The least difficult of trees to grow are indigenous trees i.e. those that grow naturally around us in the countryside and are used to our climatic fluctuations.

A great example is Pine - Scots (Pinus sylvestris) which is a super but often overlooked tree for bonsai since it grows predominantly in the north of the UK i.e. Scotland. Another example is Field Maple (Acer Campestre) which although widespread in Southern England is predominantly found as bushes and only in the South of Scotland.

The attached web link leads to a web site by the Scottish Government which outlines most of Scottish indigenous trees.


Indigenous Trees (UK) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Indigenous Trees (UK) Tree Type (Outdoors)

It is widely accepted that ‘native’ trees and shrubs are those species that have occurred naturally in the UK since the last Ice Age.

More recent introductions that have established themselves in the wild since the last Ice Age are referred to as ‘naturalised’ or ‘archeophytes’.

The linked RHS web site lists both the Indigenous and Naturalised trees, bushes and shrubs found wild in the UK.


Indoor trees - (Tree Type (Indoors))

Entry for Bonsai Indoor trees Tree Type (Indoors)
Generally refers to trees originating from tropical or sub-tropical areas which means that, in a temperate climate, they will need to be kept in a controlled environment (house/greenhouse/conservatory) for at least part of the year, in order to protect them from frost, to which they are prticularly vulnerable.

Ingleby Foundation Bonsai Nursey - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Ingleby Foundation Bonsai Nursey Dealer

The Foundation works in the voluntary sector support concentrating on inequalities and gaps in service provision thus facilitating a rational choice of support tailored to the communities and individuals need.

Ingleby Foundation Bonsai Nursery is one of the projects specialising in producing trees grown specifically for training as bonsai, and work hard to create starter material with a lot of character and potential. They also produce a large number of field grown trees, with excellent trunks and potential to become very good specimen trees. Currently they stock containerised field grown Japanese Maples, Japanese Larch, Blauws Juniper amongst many others.

Contact - Dave Cheshire.
Ingleby Foundation,
Thisledome,
Waggestaff Drive,
Nuneaton,
Warwickshire,
CV10 9SL

email: david@inglebyfoundation.org


Inosculation - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Inosculation Procedure

A naturally occurring phenomenom where branches or roots of trees growing together or across one another will join as a graft.

Most common in the same kind of tree. Inosculation happens when the bark of two branches are rubbed through to the cambium layer perhaps by wind action. Often used in the pleaching of trees or hedges.


International Saikei Association - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai International Saikei Association Club or Group

Dedicated to the art of Saikei and those who practice this art the association was originally set up as the British Saikei Association (BSA) in 1996.

The BSA became the International Saikei Association ISA in 2007 after interest from Saikei enthusiasts outside the United Kingdom.  Run by a board, they have members in a number of countries each run by a regional director who feeds local concerns about Saikei to the board.

Publishes monthly magazine and site also contains a video on saikei.

Contact : President and Board : david.penny@saikei.co.uk Membership : membership@saikei.co.uk


Internet Bonsai Club - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai Internet Bonsai Club Blogs and Advice
Internet forum for exchange of information, advice, intelligence regarding bonsai matters.

Internode - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Internode Tree Parts

The distance between two adjacent nodes or leaf joints.


Inverse taper - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Inverse taper Other
Describes a situation where the trunk tapers and then fattens before tapering again producing an unsightly bulge or thickening of the trunk.

Iron Chelates - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Iron Chelates Treatments

Also referred to as "chellated iron"or " sequestered iron"  is a compound of iron and sodium mixed with a chellating agent to make it soluble in water and so accessible to plants.   

It is used to treat chlorosis i.e. where leaves produce insufficient chlorophyll so becoming pale.


Italian Bonsai Dream - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai Italian Bonsai Dream Blogs and Advice

Bonsai website with very good before and after pictures.

Populated by Mauro Stemberger.


Itoigawa Juniper - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Itoigawa Juniper Tree Type (Outdoors)

Itoigawa is a city in southern Niigata Prefecture, Japan. The term is applied to juniper which originate from this area which are noted for their high quality, dense foliage and ability to produce a mature trunk at a young age.

The picture shows an Itoigawa Juniper created by Urishibata of Japan provided courtesy of Wattston Bonsai.



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Jade - (crassula arboresscens/ovata) - (Tree Type (Indoors))

Entry for Bonsai Jade -  (crassula arboresscens/ovata) Tree Type (Indoors)

Also known as "Money Tree". Technically not a tree but a succulent of which there are many varieties but arborescens is the most common for bonsai. The "spongey" trunk bears thick, round, grey-green leaves which are borne in pairs at right angles to the previous pair.

WARNING : Water can be the worst enemy of the jade plant. They put out roots in dry soil to find water, whereas other species only root where water is present. Never keep roots constantly wet.


Jade Pavillions - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Jade Pavillions Dealer

Jade Pavilions designs, builds and installs a range of unique, contemporary teahouses, pavilions, bridges and entrances with a nationwide installation service and international delivery.

Contact - Jade Pavilions, 
Unit 6 Underwood Business Park,  
Wookey Hole Road, 
WELLS,  
Somerset.
BA5 1AF

Tel: 07967 640 761 or 
Fax: (44) 01749 672 362

Email: momiji@jade-pavilions.com

Please note that this will be changed regularly to avoid unnecessary SPAM. Please use the reply address for your Address Book.


Japan Journeys - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Japan Journeys Dealer
Agent for tours of Japan - includes specialist bonsai tour, amongst others.

Japanese Larch - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Japanese Larch Tree Type (Outdoors)

The Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi) is a slender, upright trees with bright green, NEEDLE-like LEAVES, which turn golden in autumn before shedding in winter.

 

The Japanese larch is distinguishable by its red/orange new twigs which darken to almost purple in winter.

See Larch (Larix) for details


Japanese Maple - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Japanese Maple Tree Type (Outdoors)

See Acer Palmatum.


Japanese Terms (List) - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Japanese Terms (List) Other

Most of the mainstream terms relating to tree type, style or tree parts can be found defined individually in the appropriate section of this AtoZ.

The attached website provides a comprehensive list of Japanese terms related to bonsai which also includes some of the less common terms.


Jasmine - Winter (Jasminum nudiflorum) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Jasmine - Winter (Jasminum nudiflorum) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Bears rich, yellow flowers on leafless stems during winter, followed by profuse, narrow, green leaves in spring and summer.

STYLE : Suitable for informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, root-over-rock and clump styles.

WARNING : Shelter from winter winds. Avoid waterlogging, especially if frost expected.


Jasmine Orange (Murraya paniculata) - (Tree Type (Indoors))

Entry for Bonsai Jasmine Orange (Murraya paniculata) Tree Type (Indoors)

Jasmine is a tropical, evergreen shrub with mid-green, oval leaves in pinnate form and white, aromatic, bell-shaped flowers, which develop into orange berries. Also known as Satinwood tree because of its pale, smooth bark.

STYLE : Suited to informal upright, slanting, semi-cacscade, twin trunk, clump and group styles.

WARNING : needs minimum temperature of 17 degrees centigrade, so should only be grown indoors in temperate climate - but needs shading from hot summer sun.


Jin - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Jin Procedure

In bonsai, jin is the Japanese term that refers to a dead branch which has lost its bark. It may also be used as a verb i.e. to jin (a branch).

In the wild, dead branches are eventually bleached white or pale grey by the elements. This occurs commonly in confers, especially junipers and pines, but less so in deciduous trees (oak would be an exception).

The process is replicated in bonsai by shortening branches to stubs, stripping the bark and splintering the heartwood to a naturalistic form. The jin may then be arificially bleached in order to reproduce the colour seen in nature.

Jin means "God" and is symbolic of the Supreme Being's influence on nature.


Jin Pliers - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Jin Pliers Tool

These specialist pliers are normally used for the forming of jin.

They (often but not always) have a "bent nose" which facilitates the gripping and tearing of bark and wood when stripping a stub down to heartwood.

They are also useful for holding and bending the thicker gauges of wire.


John Milton Bonsai - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai John Milton Bonsai Blogs and Advice

Blog of a young Englishman working as a bonsai student in Japan.


John Pitt Bonsai Ceramics - (Pot)

Entry for Bonsai John Pitt Bonsai Ceramics Pot

Based in Derbyshire, UK - maker of high quality hand-made Bonsai and accent pots for the discerning enthusiast. Very interesting section on website on pot selection criteria. Pots can be reserved or commissions ordered. Not all pots for sale are in the online shop. Need to contact to check stock. UK delivery is free.

Contact :
•Email: john@johnpittbonsaiceramics.co.uk
•Telephone/Fax: 01283 733479
•Mobile: 07940 580634

Please contact me if you want to commission a pot or see if I have anything suitable on the shelf


Ju-shin - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Ju-shin Tree Parts

Top of the tree. It is also called ''atama'' (head of the tree) and ''shin'' (apex of a tree).

In preparing for a bonsai tree's shape, the appearance of its top in a satisfactory form affects the status of the tree.


Judging Criteria - (Bonsai Exhibitions)

Entry for Bonsai Judging Criteria Bonsai Exhibitions

There are several key aspects which are considered in judging a bonsai in bonsai competitions.  The following list describes the key areas  which are usually individually weighted in "scoring" a tree, although at the end of the day significant personal interpretation and judgement is applied when considering these aspects :

- Overall artistic effect

- Trunk base and root spread

- Trunk structure, taper and bark

- Precision of pruning, wiring and pot position

- Presentation and health of tree and any underplanting or moss.

- Miniaturisation of leaves


Juniper - Chinese (Juniperus sinensis) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Juniper - Chinese (Juniperus sinensis) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Evergreen tree originating from mountains of Japan is distinguished by rich, green, cloud-like foliage emanating from flaky, grey/brown bark covered trunks which, in older specimens, can be gnarled and twisted with areas of naturally occuring, exposed "driftwood".

Most common variety used in bonsai is Sargentii but Aurea, Japonica, Kaizuka and Pyramidalis are also used.

STYLE : All styles except broom

WARNING : Pot grown plants can shed branches as the tree does naturally in the wild. If extending shoots are left uncut then inner foliage will die off, spoiling the overall shape


Juniper - Needle (Juniperus rigida/communis) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Juniper - Needle (Juniperus rigida/communis) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Evergreen tree originating from mountains of Japan is distinguished by its needle like leaves which grow in groups of three on slender shoots. The bark is brown and flakes away to show orange/red underbark. Often in bonsai this is combined with silver grey driftwood sections. The female tree will bear green berries if grown alongside a male and these turn to purple/black over the next two years.

STYLE : All styles except broom

WARNING : Pruning can cause overcrowded foliage mass which harbours pests. To prevent this, prune outer end so fthe foliage twigs once per year, leaving younger shoots growing from further back.


Juniper - Squamata (Juniperus squamata) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Juniper - Squamata (Juniperus squamata) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Originally from Nepal this hardy, evergreen tree is distinguished by rich, orange/brown bark and feathery, silver-blue foliage.

The dense growth pattern, flexible branches and ability to regenerate shoots make it an ideal subject for bonsai.

STYLE : All styles except broom

WARNING : Particularly vulnerable to spider mite. Young shoots are easily detached from branches.


Junipers - (Books and Articles)

Entry for Bonsai Junipers Books and Articles

Author : Wayne Schoech:

Part of the "Bonsai Today Masters Series) Junipers is an extensive collection of detailed articles from Bonsai Today. 


Juvenile foliage - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Juvenile foliage Tree Parts

The juvenile leaves of a tree with distinctly different types of mature (termed adult) foliage.

For example, the juniper has scale-like leaves when, mature and needle-like leaves when juvenile. Both juvenile and adult foliage can be seen on the attached juniper photograph.



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Kaminari - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Kaminari Tree Style
Image of a tree struck by lightning.

Kan rei sha - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Kan rei sha Other

Japanese term for a cloth used to protect a bonsai from frost in winter and to provide protection from the sun in summer.


Kaneshin Bonsai Tools - (Manufacturer)

Entry for Bonsai Kaneshin Bonsai Tools Manufacturer

Kaneshin Cutlery Manfacturing Company established 1919 which manufactures high quality bonsai tools for mail order.

Contact via web site.


Kanju - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Kanju Tree Type (Outdoors)

Japanese term for deciduous tree.


Kannuki eda - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Kannuki eda Tree Parts
Bar branch - or an ugly branch that needs to be cut off.

Kansui - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Kansui Procedure

Japanese term for watering of plants.


Karamae Miki - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Karamae Miki Tree Style

Entwined trunks.


Karamae ne - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Karamae ne Tree Parts

Tangled roots or intertwining roots appearing on the surface.

These are generally considered undesirable in bonsai.


Karusu - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Karusu Tree Parts

Japanese term for a callous i.e. the rim of bark that folds over the edged of a cut to form a healing seal.

See : Callous


Katade-mochi - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Katade-mochi Tree Style

Tree size sub-classification in the "Medium Size" bonsai range, measuring 25 to 46 cms.  Referred to in Japan as a "1 Handed" tree indicating the number of men required to move one.


Kataeda - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Kataeda Tree Style

Japanese term describing a situation where the barnches of the tree are predominantly occuring on just one side of the tree.  Sometimes this is a natural feature and sometimes it may be by design e.g. in Wwindswept (Fukinagashi).


Katane - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Katane Tree Parts

Japanese term to describe a root system which is heavily concentrated on one side of teh tree.


Keiseiso - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Keiseiso Tree Parts

Japanese term for cambium


Keshiki  - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Keshiki  Tree Style

Literal definition is landscape, although what appears to differntiate Keshiki from the traditional "saikei" style are the more naturalistic scenes and the miniature size. Reputedly developed by Kenji Kobayashi whose book (Keshiki Bonsai) is the only one identified so far which deals specifically with the subject.


Keshitsubo - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Keshitsubo Tree Style

Tree size classification in the "Miniature" bonsai range, measuring 3-8 cms.  Also termed in Japan "Poppy-seed sized.


Keto - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Keto Growing Medium

Sticky, peat based, soil used for building up the side walls when planting on slabs and for rock plantings.

The roots of a bonsai composition will grow into the keto and with a moss covering will eventually bind everything together.


Ketotshuchi - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Ketotshuchi Growing Medium

Japanese term for peat moss.  This is a type of heavy decomposted moss used as a barrier in landscape designs or for rock plantings.  The shortened form in common use in the West is Keto.


Kew Gardens Bonsai Blog - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai Kew Gardens Bonsai Blog Blogs and Advice

The Bonsai Collection at Kew is displayed in a glasshouse near to the Jodrell Laboratory, the School of Horticulture and the student vegetable plots. It is here that visitor's can find a frequently changing display of the best bonsai from their collection.

The blog provides information about bonsai techniques, tools, tree profiles and anything else of interest that that shows up along the way!


Kifu - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Kifu Tree Style

Tree size sub-classification in the "medium" sized bonsai range, measuring 25-35 cms.


Kiridashi - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Kiridashi Tool

Traditional Japanese utility knife originally used by craftsmen/artists.  They were made of a single piece of metal with an angled tip with a ground edge.  Some had cord wrapping to increase grip.


Knob Cutters - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Knob Cutters Tool

Also known as Wen Cutters. Known in Japan as Kobu Kiri Hasami. For removing branches or branch stubs or for tidying up other cuts.

The blades of Wen Cutters are engineered to leave a rounded hollow wound, which should then heal quickly without leaving ugly bumps on the trunk.


Knobby Trunk - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Knobby Trunk Tree Style

Japanese term : Kobukan.

This style exhibits "aged character" in the trunk and main branches in the form of healed over scars, cork bark, naturally healed galls etc.


Kobukan - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Kobukan Tree Style

The more descriptive western description of Knobby Trunk Style gives a strong indication of distinguishing features.

This style exhibits "aged character" in the trunk and main branches in the form of healed over scars, cork bark, naturally healed galls etc.


Kokufu-Ten - (Bonsai Exhibitions)

Entry for Bonsai Kokufu-Ten Bonsai Exhibitions

Considered the foremost bonsai exhibition in the world.  Sponsored by the Nippon Bonsai Association, it which takes place annually (in February) at Metropolitan Art Musem in Ueno Park, Tokyo.


KOMONO - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai KOMONO Tree Style

Size classification for a small bonsai between 4 and 7 inches tall (in the Miniature category).  Given their small size the best suited trees are those with naturally small leaves such as cotoneaster or azalea. 

NB : there are still different names in existance for the various size classifications in bonsai - see entry for "Bonsai Tree Sizes" for a full listing.


Kousa eda - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Kousa eda Tree Parts

Branches (called "kousa eda") crossing other branches should be removed from your bonsai tree. 

 

See Branch Pruning.


Kuitsuki eda - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Kuitsuki eda Tree Parts

Japanese term for a short complementary branch which is shorter than the other branches on the tree but which provides naturalism to the overall image.


Kuromatsu - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Kuromatsu Tree Type (Outdoors)

Japanese term for Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii).


Kuruma eda - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Kuruma eda Tree Parts

Branches (called "kuruma eda") growing from the same spot in many different directions should be removed from your bonsai tree. This is not the case in Broom Style bonsai trees where all branches come from around the same area.

See Branch Pruning.


Kurume Azalea - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Kurume Azalea Tree Type (Outdoors)

The Kurume azalea is a hybrid of Rhododendron Obtusum and Rhododendron Kiusianum, both native to the island of Kyushu, the southernmost island of Japan.

Most of the Japanese Azaleas make very successful bonsai. Even very old plants produce spectacular flowers. The Kurume azaleas have wonderful flowers, but perhaps not as showy as the Satsuki Azaleas, and are usually smaller, with more solid colors, leading to a more refined appearance. The flowers of Kurume azaleas are small about 1cm (1/2in) across. Most flowers are single.

 


Kusamono - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Kusamono Other

Japanese term for accent plantings.


Kyohon Yose (Kyuhon Yose) - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Kyohon Yose (Kyuhon Yose) Tree Style

Nine trees on the own roots in a group planting


Kyoto Bonsai - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Kyoto Bonsai Dealer

Kyoto supply trade only and do not supply the general public. Established in 1987 and claim to be the UK's leading wholesale supplier of bonsai trees and accessories.

Customer base includes: garden centres, specialist bonsai nurseries, market and show traders, and specialist internet retailers throughout the UK. They also operate a cash and carry service so customers can choose bonsai from their nursery.

Contact via website or

Tel: 01565 723759


Kyukan - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Kyukan Tree Style

Denotes a "9 trunks on the same tree" style.



Letter

Katamaru - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Katamaru Other

Japanese term for the process of lignification i,e, where a shoot hardens and becomes woody.


Lanarkshire Bonsai Group - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Lanarkshire Bonsai Group Club or Group

Club: Lanarkshire.

Address : Wattston Bonsai,
North Lanarkshire.

Convenor - Gordon Tel No - 01236 769910. Email - lochbuie@blueyonder.

Meetings - First Sunday of every month from midday . Wattston Open day Saturday prior to club day.


Lanceolate (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Lanceolate (leaf) Tree Parts

Slim shaped and pointed at both ends.


Landscape - Miniature - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Landscape - Miniature Tree Style
Japanese term : Saikei . AS its name suggests this is a grouping of plants and rocks to form a landscaped scene.

Larch (Larix) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Larch (Larix) Tree Type (Outdoors)

There are two main varieties : European larch (Larix decidua) and Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi). Slender, upright trees with bright green, needle-like leaves, which turn golden in autumn before shedding in winter.

The European larch is distinguishable by its pale, straw-like coloured twigs from the Japanese larch's red/orange new twigs which darken to almost purple in winter.

A cross between the Japanese Larch and European Larch was found growing naturally in Dunkeld Scotland at the turn of the 20th century. Known as Larix Eurolepis the hybrid grows faster than either parent and can be found at higher elevations on poorer soil.

STYLE : All styles except broom

WARNING : Needs cool, dry air for compact needles.


Larix Decidua - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Larix Decidua Tree Type (Outdoors)

There are two main varieties : EUROPEAN LARCH (Larix decidua) and JAPANESE LARCH (Larix kaempferi). Slender, upright trees with bright green, NEEDLE-like LEAVES, which turn golden in autumn before shedding in winter.

The European larch is distinguishable by its pale, straw-like coloured twigs from the Japanese larch's red/orange new twigs which darken to almost purple in winter.

See Larch (Larix) for more  details.


Larix Eurolepis  - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Larix Eurolepis  Tree Type (Outdoors)

There are two main varieties : EUROPEAN LARCH (Larix decidua) and JAPANESE LARCH (Larix kaempferi). Slender, upright trees with bright green, NEEDLE-like LEAVES, which turn golden in autumn before shedding in winter.

CROSS between the Japanese Larch and European Larch was found growing naturally in Dunkeld Scotland at the turn of the 20th century. Known as Larix Eurolepis the hybrid grows faster than either parent and can be found at higher elevations on poorer soil.

See Larch (Larix) for more details.


Larix kaempferi - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Larix kaempferi Tree Type (Outdoors)

There are two main varieties of Larch  : EUROPEAN LARCH (Larix decidua) and JAPANESE LARCH (Larix kaempferi). Slender, upright trees with bright green, NEEDLE-like LEAVES, which turn golden in autumn before shedding in winter.

The European larch is distinguishable by its pale, straw-like coloured twigs from the Japanese larch's red/orange new twigs which darken to almost purple in winter.

See LARCH (LARIX) for more details


Lateral branch - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Lateral branch Tree Parts
A side branch which arises from the main trunk.

Lateral Dominance - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Lateral Dominance Tree Parts

Most trees generally  have a natural tendency to direct growth to the top branches (the apex) which is called 'apical dominance'.  However the tendency in some trees is for growth to be directed laterally i.e. the growth tendency is outwards rather than upwards.  This is termed lateral dominance and tends to be exhibited by the "shrubbier" varieties , such as rhododenron (see Azalea (Rhododendron)).

The aim in bonsai  is to decrease either of these dominant tendencies so that the subject looks more like a mature tree rather than a bush or a sapling.


Lateral graft - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Lateral graft Procedure

This grafting technique is most commonly applied to evergreen trees in the summer period.

A notch about 5 cms in length is made in the lower part of the trunk. The chamfered edge of a scion from the donor plant is then inserted. The graft is then bound with raffia and covered with grafting compound.

Where the technique is used to capitalise on a strong rootstock the original trunk may be severed just above the graft when it has taken the following spring.


Laurifolius - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Laurifolius Tree Parts
Laurel-like leaves.

Lava - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Lava Growing Medium

Lava is solidified molten igneous rock from volcanic eruptions. It is granular in form - either red or black -  with high water absorbency characteristics.  It lasts indefinitely and can be reused.

Also called Lapillo in its natural form.

Manufactured industrially and referred to as "leca" or "leca pearls" and in Holland as "agrex".


Layering - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Layering Procedure

Technique for gaining a new bonsai from a larger, more mature specimen.

Techniques include ground layering and air layering , both described seperately in this A to Z.


Leaf beetle - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Leaf beetle Pests and Diseases

Various species of leaf beetle can attack trees between end May and August. They are about 5mm long: green, blue or brown in colour with the peculiar habit of "skeletonising" leaves rather than eating holes out of them. Willow, poplar and elm are usual hosts.

Impact is rarely severe.


Leaf cutter bee - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Leaf cutter bee Pests and Diseases

The signs of leaf cutter bee infestation are large circular notches cut into the leaves of the tree.

There is no effective treatment for this pest but fortunately it will not cause serious damage. However, it can be usnightly and so removal of affected leaves is required, which has the added bonus of encouraging additional leaf growth.


Leaf Miner - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Leaf Miner Pests and Diseases

These pests, which have a blister-like appearance, are the larvae which hatch from the eggs of moths and flies laid on the underside of leaves. They leave brown or white "trail" markings on the leaves which are particularly unsightly on deciduous trees.

Treatment involves the removal of affected leaves and regular spraying with systemic insecticide.

Image by kind permission of RHS.


Leaf Mould - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Leaf Mould Growing Medium

Autumn leaves rotted down to make a dark brown soil improver, lawn conditioner and mulch.

It can be used in seed and potting mixes too.  


Leaf Roller - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Leaf Roller Pests and Diseases

Leaf rollers eat away at foliage and wrap silken threads around the leaves, rolling them into a cigar shape.

Treatment is to spray with parathion based insecticide.


Leaf shapes - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Leaf shapes Tree Parts

There are approximatly 40 different leaf shapes which, along with leaf edging pattern,  is the prime visual indicator of the tree type.  The attached table exhibits the overall shape and also some of the other distinguishing leaf features such as pattern of edging and veining.


Leaf Trimmer - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Leaf Trimmer Tool
Small spring-action tool (think sugar tongs with sharp cutting blades) for cutting leaves and leaf stems.

Leaf trimming - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Leaf trimming Procedure
Leaves can be trimmed partially or completely (see defoliation) and this should be done by cutting the petiole (the leaf stem). The leaf stem will then naturally fall away within a short period. Leaves should not be pulled off.

Leaf weevil - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Leaf weevil Pests and Diseases

Metallic green or brown insects which cause irregular holes on (mainly birch) trees in June/July.

They move on after a few days but serious infestations can be treated with a general pesticide.


Leaves - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Leaves Tree Parts

Leaves comprise the foliage of the tree providing a photosynthesis function to provide energy to the tree.

The form and shape of leaves are adapted to their environmentsome e.g. broadleaves, narrow leaves, spiky leaves, succulent leaves, needles etc.


Lee Verhorevoort Bonsai - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Lee Verhorevoort Bonsai Dealer

Lee Verhorevoort Bonsai is the biggest Bonsai tree nursery in Kent, catering for everything that the Bonsai tree enthusiast would want, including workshops.

Contact - Lee Verhorevoort Bonsai
2 Taunton Close,
Barnehurst,
Bexleyheath,
Kent.
DA7 6NN

Tel: 01322 528458
Mobile: 07976 709613


Leopard moth - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Leopard moth Pests and Diseases
See Goat moth.

Lignified - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Lignified Other
A shoot or root that becomes woody.

Lime Sulphur - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Lime Sulphur Treatments

Lime sulphur (jin whitener) is used to create a natural oxidized white colour on bonsai deadwood. It also prevents decay.

Dampen the deadwood with water prior to application with a small brush and allow to dry thorougly. The initial colouring will be yellow but this will fade to white as the liquid dries.

Some enthusiast mix a colouring agent with the Lime Sulphur before application to give a darker effect. In some cases the tree deadwood itself is painted with the colouring agent before application of the lime sulphur.


Linear (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Linear (leaf) Tree Parts

Slim shaped and pointed at both ends but with pararllel sides (as opposed to rounded sides - per the lanceolate shape).


Ling Nam - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Ling Nam Procedure

More commonly termed the "Clip and grow method", Ling Nam is the term used to describe the bonsai styling proces where the approach is to allow growth to occur before pruning back to a bud facing the direction in which you wish it to grow.

 


Little Oak Bonsai - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Little Oak Bonsai Dealer

No dedicated site for Little Oak Bonsai Nursery

Contact Address:
Plantasia,
Street End Lane,
Sidlesham,
Chichester.
West Sussex
PO20 7RG 

Tel: 01243 641302


Little Woods Bonsai - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Little Woods Bonsai Dealer

Founded in November 2003 by its owner Mario Naziris to provide quality advice, teaching and products.

No indication that products are sold. Focuses mainly on advice and courses.

Contact - Little Woods Bonsai Nursery
Sacred Wood Garden Centre
Theobalds Road
Crews Hill
London
EN2 9DG

Tel: 0044208 367 0489
Mobile: 07825621612


Living Mulch - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Living Mulch Treatments

Living mulches have been tested around the globe as an understory to many crops including trees.

Living mulches work in three ways: Fixing the atmospheric Nitrogen (N2) that is important for the main crop, recycling soil nutrients, and enhancing soil nutrient availability for the bonsai tree.

In bonsai mosses are used as a living mulch to enhance growth (although some people think they are only there to enhance the look of the tree). Sphagnum moss in particular is used around the roots of sick or ailing trees. Normal forest moss is used as a covering for the potting medium.


Loam - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Loam Growing Medium

A soil composed of sand, silt and clay roughly in proportions that can vary producing a variety of mixes including sandy loam, silty loam, clay loam, sandy clay loam, silty clay loam, and loam.

Generally used as a componenet of bonsai soil mix along with peat, crushed bark, perlite, grit etc. depending on the requirements of the individual tree type.


Lobed (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Lobed (leaf) Tree Parts

Deeply indented margins seperating elliptic shaped lobes.


Longitudinal (leaf veins) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Longitudinal (leaf veins) Tree Parts

Leaf veins emanating from stem and then aligning themselves broadly in parallel to the central stem.


Lutterworth Plant & Bonsai Nursery - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai Lutterworth Plant & Bonsai Nursery Blogs and Advice

Lutterworth Plant and Bonsai Nursery, Leicestershire. Provides a wide range of bonsai trees, tools and accessories at competitive prices to suit all needs.

Open 7 days a week. Tel : 01455 552211



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Ma-Ke Bonsai - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Ma-Ke Bonsai Dealer

On-line bonsai store which also offers bonsai classes. Fairly limited offering on site but states that 150 species are stocked.

Contact : Ma-Ke Bonsai
66 Harvey Road,
Whitton,
TW4 5LU

Tel: 0792 805 2986

Email: sales@makebonsai.com


Macroelements - (Fertiliser)

Entry for Bonsai Macroelements Fertiliser

Generic term used to describe the 3 key fertilizer components : Nitrogen (N), Phosphorous (P), Potassium (Ka). 


Mae eda - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Mae eda Tree Parts

Japanese term for the front branch of a tree which is always positioned on the bottom half of the bonsai.


Maidenhair Tree (Ginkgo Biloba) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Maidenhair Tree (Ginkgo Biloba) Tree Type (Outdoors)

The oldest of all species. it is is primitive type of conifer closely related to ferns. Tall and columnar in style developing a gnarled trunk with age but no fine branch structure. They have distinctively shaped, bright green leaves which change to pale yellow in autumn.

STYLE : Formal upright and clump.

WARNING : Avoid : crushing fleshy roots when repotting, wiring as bark marks easily and large cuts as they will not grow over.


Malathion - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Malathion Treatments

Malathion is an organophosphate pesticide effective on a broad variety of insect pests.

Malathion can turn young leaves black. Insecticides containing bifenthrin are suggested by expert bonsai artists Peter Chan because they are kinder than malathion to younger leaves.

A light spray during winter will kill any eggs. Advice is not to use Malathion on Ficus, Crassu- la, Podocarpus or buttonwood.


Mame - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Mame Tree Style

This is a sub classification in the "miniature" bonsai range and is one of the smallest of the size categories for bonsai.

Pronounced "ma-mey" these trees can vary in size from a few up to 15-20 cms (approximately 6-7 inches) from rim of the pot to top of the tree.


Maple - Field (Acer Campestre) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Maple - Field (Acer Campestre) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Small, native European Maple, with coarse twigs and typical maple foliage which turns buttercup yellow in autumn.

STYLE : Upright tree suitable for most styles except literati.

WARNING : Prefers dappled shade. Needs protection from scorching by exposure to the hottest summer sun. Susceptible to aphids and scale insect.


Maple - Japanese (Acer Palmatum) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Maple - Japanese (Acer Palmatum) Tree Type (Outdoors)

This category covers a wide rang of cultivars including : Deshojo, Chisio, Ukon, Dissectum Atropurpurium and many others. originating from Japan they exhibit a wide range of leaf and bark colourings.

STYLE : Upright tree suitable for most styles except literati.

WARNING : Prefers dappled shade. Needs protection from scorching by exposure to the hottest summer sun. Susceptible to aphids and scale insect.


Maple - Norway (Acer Platanoides) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Maple - Norway (Acer Platanoides) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Norway Maple

A common tree throughout much of Europe from Norway down to the Mediterranean and to Western Asia. It is an important forestry wood in Europe with its Hard Light coloured wood finding use in furniture to musical instruments. As Bonsai it make an attractive Medium to Large Bonsai, despite it's larger leaf size.

Styles : Formal upright, Informal Upright, Slanting, Broom, Twin trunk.


Maple - Trident (Acer Buergerianum/Acer Trfidum) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Maple - Trident (Acer Buergerianum/Acer Trfidum) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Deciduous, upright tree with pale grey bark and fresh green, three lobed leaves in spring changing to rich orange/red in autumn.

STYLE : Upright tree suitable for most styles but particularly good for root-over-rock.

WARNING : Roots have high moisture content and so can easily suffer frost damage. Prevent freezing of roots by over-wintering in sheltered area.


Masakuni Bonsai Tools - (Manufacturer)

Entry for Bonsai Masakuni Bonsai Tools Manufacturer

The Bonsai tool originator MASAKUNI Co., Ltd. is the only full-scale maker in Japan and has over three-quarters century of experience in producing Bonsai training tools.

Tools can be supplied via selected UK bonsai stockists


Medullary ray - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Medullary ray Tree Parts

A channel radiating out from the heartwood across and perpendicular to the growth rings and allow the radila transmission of sap, used for storage of sugars while the plant is dormant.


Mei boku - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Mei boku Other

Japanese term for a very old and elegant bonsai.


Mendip Bonsai Studio - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Mendip Bonsai Studio Dealer

Provider of specialist bonsai workshops The Mendip Bonsai Nursery is not open to the general public. Personal callers are welcome, but you must phone ahead for an appointment.

Contact -  John Trott Mendip Bonsai Studio,
Byways,
Backlane,
Downside, Shepton Mallet,
Somerset.
BA4 4JR

Tel: 01749 344274


Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Dawn Redwood) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Dawn Redwood) Tree Type (Outdoors)

See Dawn Redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides)


Microelements - (Fertiliser)

Entry for Bonsai Microelements Fertiliser

Also termed "trace elements" because they constitute only small requirements for tree health.  These include : Magnesium (Mg), Boron (B), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn), Calcium (Ca), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Cobalt (Co) and Molybdenum (Mo).


Mid Hertfordshire Bonsai - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Mid Hertfordshire Bonsai Club or Group

The aim of the club is to promote the art of Bonsai by providing local facilities where people can meet and share expertise. All ages and skill levels are welcome.

Mid Herts Bonsai Club was founded in 1984 and has around 45 members including 7 commitee members. The club meets up on the third Wednesday of every month (except December) from 7.30pm to 10.00pm The meetings are generally based around a workshop, talk or demonstration from club members or guest speakers. The annual programme includes workshops, speakers (club members and visitors) and social evenings.

Mid Herts Bonsai Club
Backhouse Room,
Handside Lane,
Welwyn Garden City,
AL8 6SZ

Contact: Geoff Conybeare 
Tel: 0752 8614826


Midlands Bonsai - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Midlands Bonsai Dealer

Call or text anytime for a fast reply if you don't get an answer send a text with your inquires

Location: Stoke-on-Trent Staffordshire

Email: midlandsbonsai@hotmail.co.uk

Tel: 0787 6805019

 


Midlands Bonsai - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Midlands Bonsai Club or Group
Dealer with limited offerings on a very slim site. Does include some video links

Miki - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Miki Tree Parts

Japanese term for the trunk of the tree


MiKo Bonsai - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai MiKo Bonsai Dealer

MiKo Bonsai is advertised as Leicester's only dedicated Bonsai retailer, stocking trees for all experience levels from starter trees for the absolute beginner to specimen trees for the seasoned Bonsai enthusiast.

They also stock a range of raw and pre trained starter material, pots, tools and everything else needed to keep bonsai in top condition.

Products and trees are available by Mail Order through their ebay shop.


Mildew - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Mildew Pests and Diseases

See entry for  : "Powdery Mildew".


Minomo - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Minomo Tree Type (Outdoors)

Japanese term for fruit bearing trees such as cotoneaster, crab apple etc.


Misho - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Misho Procedure

Misho the process of growing a bonsai from seed.


Misho Bonsai - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Misho Bonsai Dealer

This seed company specializes in tree seeds of species suitable for bonsai plants, called bonsai seeds.

Browse through Mishobonsai extensive seed catalog of all kinds of deciduous, evergreen and tropical tree seeds. They also have a mix package section where you can find seeds of various species in package by theme or species and a seed germination supplies section.


Mister - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Mister Tool
Used for misting both indoor and outdoor bonsai, applying foliar fertiliser and spraying insecticides.

Misting - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Misting Procedure

Describes the technique of spraying a fine mist of water onto plants in order to increase humid atmosphere around indoor plants and also to reduce the rate of moisture loss from leaves on recently collected outdoor plants. There are several other techniques of improving levels of humidity.


Miyama Kirishima - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Miyama Kirishima Tree Style
Japanese term : Kabudachi. Also known as "sprout style". This style can often be seen in nature where an old tree stump or log will re-sprout new branches. It is also referred to as Clump style. The attached weblink provides a full listing of styles

Mochikomi - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Mochikomi Other

An important Japanese concept in bonsai. A tree or companion must look like it’s been there naturally for a while, and that is the age and unity of mochikomi between pot, bonsai and accessory planting. Sometimes the term just means how old the tree is.


Mountain Ash - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Mountain Ash Tree Type (Outdoors)

See "Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia or cashmiriana)"


Mud Men - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Mud Men Other

These are small glazed pottery figurines produced in China and used for incorporation into bonsai presentations.


Mulberry (Morus Alba) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Mulberry (Morus Alba) Tree Type (Outdoors)

A long living (500 years) tree famous for harbouring silk worms. The shape varies depending on variety. Leaves are alternate with deeply indented edges (often lobed) and are light green with shiny surface and polished underneath turning to golden yellow in autumn. Bears pinkish white, round, edible berries in autumn.

STYLE : Suitable for most styles with exception of formal upright and broom. Looks good grown over rock.

WARNING : Liquid fertilizer is best during flowering.


Mycelial cords - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Mycelial cords Growing Medium

A branching type of fungus which can appear similar to plant roots (sometimes referred to as rhizomorphs). 

They transport nutrients from one (root) food source to another and generally are beneficial to trees with which they have a symbiotic relationship.  This can also allow them to spread infection from a diseased source to an uninfected plant.


Mycelium - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Mycelium Other

The vegetative part of a fungus consisting of a mass of branching, threadlike filaments called hyphae.

Mycelium is vital in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems for their role in the decomposition of plant material.

The mycelium of mycorrhizal fungi increases the efficiency of water and nutrient absorption of most plants


Mycorrhiza - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Mycorrhiza Other

A fungus that lives in a symbiotic relationship with the tree, whereby the tree supplies sugars to the fungus and the fungus gathers water and minerals for the tree. Can be seen as white "tracery" among the tree roots. Common in pines. Retention of some mycorhizza containing soil when repotting is beneficial.

Mycorhizza additives can be purchased from a number of outlets. The additives contain a selection of common mycorhizza spores which tend to be selective with which trees they will develop a symbiotic relationship.


Mycorrhizal fungi - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Mycorrhizal fungi Growing Medium

Mycorrhizal fungi are a group of organisms that have been benefiting plants for at least 500 million years. At the dawn of time when plants were just beginning to colonise our planet mycorrhizal fungi were there living in a symbiotic relationship with plants enabling them to extract nutrients and hold onto water in very difficult soil conditions.

In effect, the fungus provides a secondary root system, a system that is considerably more efficient and extensive than the plants own root system.

Mycorhizza additives can be purchased from a number of outlets. The additives contain a selection of common mycorhizza spores which tend to be selective with which trees they will develop a symbiotic relationship.


Myrtle - Common (myrtus communis/appiculata) - (Tree Type (Indoors))

Entry for Bonsai Myrtle - Common (myrtus communis/appiculata) Tree Type (Indoors)

Tender, evergreen shrub with glossy, mid to dark green leaves. Bears small white, fragrant, summer blossoms. The "communis" bears black fruits. The "appiculata" is distinguished by peeling, cinnamon-coloured bark showing cream beneath and may also bear red fruits as well as black.

STYLE : suited to informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, twin-trunk, clump and multiple-trunk styles.

WARNING : Use ericaceous soild and fertlizer together with "soft" (lime-free) water.

 


Myrtle- Crape (Lagerstroemia indica) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Myrtle- Crape (Lagerstroemia indica) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Noted for its decorative bark the outer grey layer of which peels away to reveal rusty brown to pink patches. The tree also displays showy flowers which range from deep lilac, through pink, to white. Leaves are mid-green, oval with a pointed tip.

STYLE : Suited to informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade and root-over-rock styles.

WARNING : Crape Myrtles MUST have a sufficient dormant period. Maintain winter temperatures between 7-10 degrees centigrade and allow light levels to fall when bare of leaves.



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Nanakan - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Nanakan Tree Style

Denotes a "7 trunks on the same tree" style.


Nanohan yose - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Nanohan yose Tree Style
Group planting with seven trees

National Bonsai Collection of Scotland - (Bonsai Exhibitions)

Entry for Bonsai National Bonsai Collection of Scotland Bonsai Exhibitions

The National Collection of Bonsai in Scotland is based around the "Graham trees" as they are known. Bill Graham, of Maybole in Ayrshire was a master butcher, and when he retired he concentrated on creating and collecting bonsai.Over nearly thirty years, he developed his knowledge and his collection of 300 trees,

When Bill died in 1983, his widow donated the trees to the Local Authority Parks Department of Kyle and Carrick so that some them at least, could continue to be displayed at their Annual Ayr Flower Show. Eventually, Patrick Gibb, then principal organiser of the Show, passed the "Graham Trees" to the Scottish Bonsai Association in November 1984. A group of members set up the first ever National Collection of Bonsai in Britain. Mrs Graham then legally gifted the trees to the Scottish Bonsai Association (SBA).

The collection is located at Binny Plants, Binny Estate, Ecclesmachan, West Lothian, Scotland, EH52 6NL.


National Trees - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai National Trees Tree Type (Outdoors)

A list of some national trees -

England - Royal Oak (Quercus Robur)

Ireland - Sessile Oak (Quercus Petraea)

Scotland - Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris)

United States - Oak (Quercus)

Wales - Sessile Oak (Quercus Petraea)

 


Ne tsunagari - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Ne tsunagari Tree Style

Japanese term for corrected root style of bonsai.


Needle - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Needle Tree Parts

A leaf type which is narrow and usually stiff e.g. pine needles.


Needle Juniper (Juniperus rigida) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Needle Juniper (Juniperus rigida) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Small evergreen tree with arching branches and small, needle-like leaves which are flaccid when young but become sharp when mature.

STYLE : All styles except broom.

WARNING : It can take up to 12 months for tree death to manifest itself in foliage browning/die-back. Rare and difficult to diagnose fungi can affect needle junipers. Any areas of discoloured foliage that cannot be attributed to spider mites need to be cut back to healthy wood and burned.


Nejikan - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Nejikan Tree Style

This "Twisted Style" is defined by a trunk which grows in a twisted style (but not exagerated into full coils , which is the Bankan style).

The existance of shari will exagerate the effect, which in extreme examples can be described as the "barber pole" effect. This is most often seen on juniper where the red bark contrasts vividly with the pale shari.


Nematicides - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Nematicides Treatments

These are chemicals designed to eradicate parasitic nematodes.


Nematodes - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Nematodes Treatments

Naturally occurring microscopic worms, already present in the soil which attack and kill targeted garden pests.

The nematode that kills specific garden pests including slugs, vine weevils, chafer grubs, leatherjackets, caterpillars, codling moth and various others has been identified and is specially bred to be easily applied with a watering can. They die back to original numbers when all pests have been consumed.


Nematodes - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Nematodes Pests and Diseases

Wart-like swellings which appear on the roots of certain species (mainly Rosaceae e.g. qunce/cotoneaster). Visible impact is flagging topgrowth. 

Checks for nematodes should be carried out at re-potting.  If identified, the affected area should be sliced off and a systemic fungicide sprayed directly onto the cut.  Once re-potted fungicide should be applied every 2 weeks for the next 4-6 weeks.


Neutral soil - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Neutral soil Growing Medium

Soil which is neither predominantly acid or alkaline having a pH of 6.5-7.3


New wood - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai New wood Tree Parts
Growth which has been produced during the current season.

Newstead Bonsai Centre - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Newstead Bonsai Centre Dealer

Home of John Hanby and location for his bonsai school. Open to the public and with online shop.

Contact - Newstead Bonsai Centre
Newstead Lane (B6428)
Havercroft
Wakefield
West Yorkshire
WF4 2HW


Ni no eda - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Ni no eda Tree Parts

Japanese term for the second branch of a bonsai tree.


Norfolk Bonsai Association - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Norfolk Bonsai Association Club or Group
Blog news on facebook site

North Devon Bonsai - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai North Devon Bonsai Club or Group

A friendly group of enthusiasts who welcome all from the absolute novice to the highly skilled. "It is simply the love of Bonsai that brings us together to learn and have fun. "

Meet on the second Monday of each month @ 7.30pm with a varied programme of advice and help.

Usual meeting place:- Methodist Church Hall
Rhododendron Avenue
Barnstaple
North Devon

Contact:- Roy 01398 341440 or Alan 01271 322916


North of England Bonsai - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai North of England Bonsai Dealer

Operates out of Baldersby near Thirsk in Yorkshire. 

North of England Bonsai is the north's premier supplier of Bonsai trees, accessories and advice.

Richard Reah the proprietor, focuses on both the professional presentation and retail of bonsai from the smallest most quaint of trees to absolutely spectacular showpieces.

Contact - Telephone:07792 121913


Northern Ireland Bonsai Society - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Northern Ireland Bonsai Society Club or Group

The Northern Ireland Bonsai Society was founded in 1986 by a small group of people who realised the need for an organisation to promote and further it in this country.

The Society holds a meeting on the Second Friday of every month at 8.00pm. (Except July& August).

They meet in the Cregagh Youth & Community Centre,
Mount Merrion Avenue,
Belfast.

Name: Ian Young
email: info@nibonsai.co.uk 
Tel No: 77952 63569
Venue: Cregagh Library, 413 Cregagh Road , Belfast
Day: 2nd Friday


Nothofagus  - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Nothofagus  Tree Type (Outdoors)

Nothofagus (also generally referred to as southern beech), is native to South America (Chile & Argentina)and Australasia. In the past, they were classified as beech but they are now included as a separate genus covering 36-40 different species. Nothos (means false) and Fagus (to which it is related) is the beech genus. The genus includes both deciduous and evergreen species. Common varieties for bonsai are Procera (Southern Beech)and Obliqua (Roble Beech)but the most common is the Antarctica (Antarctic Beech) the leaves of which are small, dark green with wavy or toothed edges and the bark is dark and slightly "craggy".

STYLE : small leaf size makes them best suited to small/medium size specimens in informal upright, slanting, twin trunk, clump and group styles.

WARNING : Due to their southern origins many of the varieties do not like excessive winter cold. They are light demanding plants and so best placed in an open, sunny position.



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Oak - English (Quercus robur) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Oak - English (Quercus robur) Tree Type (Outdoors)

The traditional English oak displays a strongly grained trunk and distinctive short-stalked, muliple-lobed leaves which start out as bright green becoming prgressivly darker and ultimately a bronze-brown in autumn.

STYLE : Best suited to medium/large size specimens in informal upright, slanting, twin trunk and group styles.

WARNING: Oak is particularly vulnerable to mildew. Spray regularly with fungicide.


Obcordate (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Obcordate (leaf) Tree Parts

Heart-shaped with the stem at the point of the heart.  (Note : Cordate is the same heart shape but with the stem at the base.

 


Obovate (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Obovate (leaf) Tree Parts

Egg shaped with the stem at the narrower end of the "egg".


Obtuse (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Obtuse (leaf) Tree Parts

Oval with pointed tips although these are blunted.


Octopus - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Octopus Tree Style

Japanese term : Tako Zukuri. Distinguised by over-exaggerated twists and turns in both trunk and branch often accompanied by contorted, well-exposed root. The overall effect of the style should be to make the tree should look like a scary, monster tree from a fairy tale.


Odd Pinnate (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Odd Pinnate (leaf) Tree Parts

Leaflets in rows either side of the stem and with a single leaflet at the top . (Note : distinguished from "Even Pinnate" which has two leaflets at the tip.


Old wood - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Old wood Tree Parts
Growth which was produced prior to the current growing season.

Olive (Olea europaea) - (Tree Type (Indoors))

Entry for Bonsai Olive (Olea europaea) Tree Type (Indoors)

Olives grow naturally in usually dry, arid climates where their extensive root system supports a fleshy leaf and bark structure which is capable of absorbing and storing a significant amount of water when it does become available. They are capable of withstanding the occasional frost in the wild but when grown in a pot they should be considered as tender and be protected from frost. They grow in several different varieties, all with glossy, dark green leaves with a pale green, matt underside. The leaf shape, however, can vary from round through oval to long and narrow.

STYLE : Suited to Informal upright, literati and root over rock.

WARNING : Branches are brittle so bend with care. Pruned branches die back to their point of origin so branches should be shortened gradually, in stages. Watch out for scale insects and spider mites.


Omono - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Omono Tree Style

Tree size sub-category within the "Large Bonsai" classification, measuring 76 to 122 cms. Also referred to in Japan as a "4 Handed tree" indicating how many men it would take to move one.


Opposite (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Opposite (leaf) Tree Parts

Leaflets in adjacent pairs on a single stem


Orbicular (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Orbicular (leaf) Tree Parts

Circular shaped.


Ortho-Phalton 50 - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Ortho-Phalton 50 Treatments

Fungicide used (usually under a specific brand name) to combat a range of problems.  Considered highly toxic


Orthocide - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Orthocide Treatments
Fungicide for the control of diseases in fruit, vegetable, ornamental and green house crops and for use on turf, ornamentals and certain soil borne diseases.

Osmosis - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Osmosis Tree Parts

Osmosis in plants is the process by which they gain water through their roots. Water moves into plant cells by osmosis, making them turgid or stiff so that they are able to hold the plant upright.


Ovate leaf - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Ovate leaf Tree Parts

Egg shaped with larger part at the base of the leaf.


Over Potting - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Over Potting Procedure

Planting a bonsai tree in a bonsai pot or container than is larger than required to maintain the tree.

Often done when a bonsai tree is less actively well cared for or is being given a "rest" for a year or so. Trees are sometimes also planted back into the ground to allow to grow on a bit outside of a pot.

However, the size of the pot used has a major influence that determines the speed at which the tree grows and too big a pot can have negative impacts on health and growth rate - see attached website.



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Mica Pot - (Pot)

Entry for Bonsai Mica Pot Pot

Mica Bonsai pots are always dark brown and are made of 80% mica, 15% polyethylene and 5% graphite.

They are ideal as training pots & for use with larger trees as they are a lot lighter than traditional clay pots and are virtually unbreakable.


Pall Walter (web page) - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai Pall Walter (web page) Blogs and Advice
Walter Pall is known worldwide for the quality of his bonsai creations. He has received several dozens national and international awards for his beautiful, dramatic bonsai. He has won the most prestigious Crespi Cup Award of Italy for his well known Rocky Mountain Juniper, and has come in among the top six, every time he has entered. He has also won second and third and other places places in the Gingko Cup Awards of the Belgium bonsai competition held every two years. Walter often is called a walking encyclopedia on bonsai and he shares his knowledge freely. Walter also loves to lead workshops where he sets the main focus on teaching the artistic side of bonsai. In the past years Walter has also established himself as the key moderator for international bonsai conventions. A specialty of Walter are his tree critiques which he calls 'tree inspiration'.

Palmate (of leaf veins) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Palmate (of leaf veins) Tree Parts

Describes several primary veins diverging from a single point.


Palmate leaf - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Palmate leaf Tree Parts

Leaf comprising leaflets or lobes radiating like outstretched fingers from a central point.


Parathion - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Parathion Treatments

This is a potent insecticide and acaricide.

It was originally developed by IG Farben in the 1940s. It is highly toxic to non-target organisms, including humans.

Its use is banned or restricted in many countries, and there are proposals to ban it from all use.


Parvifolius - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Parvifolius Tree Parts
Small leaved.

Peach leaf curl - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Peach leaf curl Pests and Diseases

This disease which causes leaf damage and so weakens the tree, is limited to a few "Prunus" species (including Hawthorn - a popular bonsai species).

Signs are reddish brown blisters on leaves which grow bigger and turn white whereupon the leaves distort, discolour and drop off.

The fungus can survive over winter in the bark and bud scales.

Treatment is application of a copper fungicide spray before bud break and again just before leaf fall.


Peat - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Peat Growing Medium

Peat is made up of partially decayed plant material, usually in wet areas. It is composed mainly of wetland vegetation: principally bog plants including mosses, sedges and shrubs and has been used extensively as a growing medium/soil improver for many years.

The commercial extraction of peat at existing rates is considered by some people to be environmentally unsustainable as it removes peat at a much faster rate than it accumulates leading to the irreversible destruction of peatlands. This premise however has been challenged by a number of sudies. Read More.

Many viable peat alternatives exist which are either completely peat-free or of reduced peat content. However many plants have evolved to grow in a peat environment e.g. Azalea (Rhododendron) and growers find that growing seeds or cuttings in peat is a necessity.

Peat is often used as a constituent part of a bonsai soil mix where an organic component is desired.


Pedate (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Pedate (leaf) Tree Parts

Palmate shaped lobes between heavy indentations.  Distinguishable from "Lobed" shape by the sharper, narrower lobes.


Peltate (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Peltate (leaf) Tree Parts

Leaf shape where the stem emanates from the centre of the leaf surface rather than the edge.


Penicuik Bonsai Group - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Penicuik Bonsai Group Club or Group

Club :Penicuik.

Address : Penicuik Town Hall,
High Street,
Penicuik,
EH26 8HS.

Convenor - Dave. Tel No - 0131 258 1936.

Meetings - Second Tuesday of the month 7.30pm.


Penjing (Chinese) - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Penjing (Chinese) Other

Penjing is a Chinese term which means roughly the same as bonsai (plant in a container). Penjing appears to cover a wide range of styles which developed in China 1,500-2,000 years ago.

During the Chin dynasty (221-206 BC) China and Japan started to make social and spiritual contact when Buddhism was introduced into both countries. It appears that many Buddhist priests encouraged the ceremonial use of potted plants as part of religious rituals. The precision and attention to detail that applied to the art form was then developed and improved by Japanese practioners.


Perfoliate (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Perfoliate (leaf) Tree Parts

Where the stem appears to penetrate through the leaf and continue on.


Perth Bonsai Group - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Perth Bonsai Group Club or Group

Club : Perth.

Address : North Inch Community Campus,
Gowans Terrace,
Perth,
PH1 5BF.

Convenor : John Mellanby

Email - jfmellanby@gmail.com.

Meetings - First Wednesday of the month (not Dec,Jan).


Peter Tea Bonsai - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai Peter Tea Bonsai Blogs and Advice

Sharing experiences as a Bonsai Artist and Instructor. Located in San Jose, California and working all over the United States.

The purpose of this blog and website is to share some learnings in Bonsai and to keep in touch with the ever growing bonsai community.

Posted articles include individual Bonsai projects along with helpful tips and techniques for those seeking information in improving their own skills.


Petiole - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Petiole Tree Parts

Leaf stalk that joins the leaf to the branch.

When defoliating a tree it is the petiole that is cut and not the leaf. In this way less moisture is lost through the cut edge.

 


pH Meter - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai pH Meter Tool

A pH meter is an electronic device used in bonsai for measuring the pH level(acidity or alkalinity) of potting soils. A pH meter usually consists of a probe connected to an electronic meter that measures and displays the pH reading.

There are many different models, some of which are "dual probed" to allow measurement of temperature also.

The PH level of soil can also be measured using a commercially available chemical kit from most garden centres.


pH Value - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai pH Value Other

(the power of Hydrogen) A measure of acidity and alkalinity. Below 6.5pH is acid and above 7.3pH is alkaline.

Soil pH is important because it influences several soil factors affecting plant growth, such as
(1) soil bacteria,
(2) nutrient leaching,
(3) nutrient availability,
(4) toxic elements, and
(5) soil structure.

The associated web link explains in more detail and includes a table of pH values for a range of trees.


Phloem - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Phloem Tree Parts

Also known as "inner bark" the phloem sits between the bark and the cambium in the trunk of the tree and its purpose is to transport sugars back down the trunk and branches.

See also cambium, xylem, and bark (tree).


Photosynthesis - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Photosynthesis Other
The process by which sugars are produced within the leaves, using water, carbon dioxide from the air and sunlight.

Picea Species - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Picea Species Tree Type (Outdoors)

Often termed Common Spruce or Norway Spruce. Has orange/brown bark when young which turns to purple/grey when mature. Foliage is dark green, flattened, needle-like. Often grown in dwarf form (Little Gem/Maxwellii).

STYLE : Suited to all styles except broom.

WARNING : Dense foliage makes spruce particularly prone to red spider mite and spruce aphid attack.


Pierneef  - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Pierneef  Tree Style

Flat topped, broom style bonsai inspired by natural tree shapes seen in Africa where giraffes in particular can strip foligae from high up the trunk. The form is named after the South African artist, Jacob Hendrik Pierneef, who depicted many of these tree forms in his paintings.


Pinch and grow - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Pinch and grow Procedure

This is the technique (generally attributed to the Chinese) used to style trees which are too brittle, spiky, thorny or fleshy to style easily using wire. Examples include quince, pyracantha or jade. It requires the tree to be shaped by pruning and pinching only.

Known to Japanese Bonsaists as Hasami Zukuri.


Pinching Out - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Pinching Out Procedure

Sometimes referred to as "pinching back". Deciduous, or broad leafed trees, need to have their new shoots pinched out at the growing tips regularly during the spring and summer months in order to encourage back-budding (new buds within the branch structure) and branch ramification (the structured network of branches supporting foliage).


Pine - Mountain (Pinus Mugo) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Pine - Mountain (Pinus Mugo) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Native to central Europe. Thrives in harsh conditions. Becomes "bushy" in better conditions. Has upright needles, growing in pairs. Bark is a craggy, dark brown. Has some interesting dwarf varieties (Gnon and Mops).

STYLE : Suited to all styles - except broom. Dwarf varieties particularly suited to "clasped-to-rock" style.

WARNING : Protect from severe frost and freezing winds.


Pine - White (Pinus Parviflora/Pinus Pentaphylla) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Pine - White  (Pinus Parviflora/Pinus Pentaphylla) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Also known as Japanese White Pine or Japanese 5 Needle Pine. This conifer has purplish bark with black scales upon which needles grow in cluster of 5 in dense tufts. Foliage colour can vary but generally is bluish green on top and bluish white underneath.

STYLE : Suitable for all styles, except broom, but particularly good for formal and informal upright.

WARNING : Fully hardy but need protection against cold winds and prolonged freezing. Avoid waterlogging.


Pine Blight - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Pine Blight Pests and Diseases
This is a fungal disease that attacks young pines. The signs are that brown spots start to appear on the needles in autumn and winter, turning to black diagonal stripes as spring approaches. Recommended treatment is to spray with copper based fungicide.

Pine needle cast - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Pine needle cast Pests and Diseases
This appears as yellow patches on the needles accompanied by tiny brown pustules in the middle. The needles turn yellow and fall quite quickly and, if not treated, this can be fatal for the whole tree. The application of copper based fungicide at regular intervals throughout the summer will clear the infection.

Pine needle scale - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Pine needle scale Pests and Diseases

Small white scale insect that appears as a white "dot" on pine needles.  Small occurences may be removed manually but larger infestations are best treated with horticultural oils.


Pinnate  - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Pinnate  Tree Parts

Leaf form describing a situation where each leaf is composed of several smaller leaflets grouped in pairs along a central stalk.

Form may be Even Pinnate where the leaflets are directly opposite one another on each side of the stalk or Odd Pinnate where they are offset (Note : Odd Pinnate also has a single leaflet at the tip of the stalk.


Pinnatisect (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Pinnatisect (leaf) Tree Parts

Shape with deep opposite lobing - example would be the English Oak leaf.


Pinus (Genus) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Pinus (Genus) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Pinus are the genus of trees which contains Pines in the family Pinaceae.

There are currently 175 named pine varieties with another 30 or 40 which have not yet been properly classified. A list of pines by region is available on Wikipedia.

Pine is one of the most commercially important timber in the world. A fast growing softwood (in a plantation) the timber is used for the likes of internal woodwork in houses or as wood pulp.

Pines generally can be identified by the number of needles which grow from the same spot (fascile), the colour of the bud (which forms new needles/branches) and the color of the bark. Needles can be borne in clusters of 1-6 although 2-5 is much more common.

Pines can live from 100-1000 years although there is one aged pine recorded at 5065 years old.

A number of pines are popular in Bonsai, please click the More Info button to learn more.


Pistachio (Pistacia vera/terebinthus) - (Tree Type (Indoors))

Entry for Bonsai Pistachio (Pistacia vera/terebinthus) Tree Type (Indoors)

Small, tender, spreading, deciduous tree bearing lance-shaped, glossy green, pinnate leaves with dull, green undersides, brown/green flowers in late spring followed by oval, reddish fruits.

STYLE : Suitable for informal upright, root-over-rock or clump.

WARNING : Any wiring should be carried out at the end of the growing season as branches are brittle earlier.


Pittosporum - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Pittosporum Tree Type (Outdoors)

Fast growing evergreen plant with attractive foliage which comes in several different varieties. Considered best suited for hedging or topiary but can be developed into an attractive bonsai. Pittosporum bonsai are rare.

STYLE : Best suited to informal upright.

WARNING : Vulnerable to powdery mildew and leaf spot. See section on these deseases for treatment.


Plastic Pot - (Pot)

Entry for Bonsai Plastic Pot Pot
Plastic pots are a cheap alternative for trees in development. Generally lighter and shatterproof plastic pots take a lot of mishandling. They may however fade over time due to UV from the sun. Another inexpensive alternative are Mica Pots

Pliers (types) - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Pliers (types) Tool

See Jin Pliers. Ordinary pliers are a reasonable substitute and needle nosed pliers can also be useful for holding (wire and branch) or tearing a jin.


Pomegranate (Punica Granatum) - (Tree Type (Indoors))

Entry for Bonsai Pomegranate (Punica Granatum) Tree Type (Indoors)

Classed as semi-deciduous (requires rest period during winter but does not shut down completely) tree with small bright green, oval/oblong leaves and red, pink or white flowers and succulent fruit. Its pale grey bark becomes wrinkled as it matures and trunk becomes sinuous and twisted.

STYLE : Any - except formal upright or broom.

WARNING : Flowering is on short shoots from last years wood. Take care not to prune these. Carry out wiring when shoots are green and pliable, otherwise they can be very brittle.


Porch (Robert) - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Porch (Robert) Dealer

Bonsaiist based in Glasgow area offering a variety of bonsai services - see "Rising Sun Bonsai".

 


Pot Bound - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Pot Bound Other

Describes a condition where the tree has been left so long that the roots have grown extensively and occupy most of the pot, making the absorption of air, moisture and nutrients difficult. If left, this will damage (and even kill) the tree,


Pot Seals - (Pot)

Entry for Bonsai Pot Seals Pot
A blog showing pot seals from Japanese pots that identifies the potter who created the pot. On a web site that helps identify seals and marks on many Japanese and Chinese pots.

Potensai - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Potensai Tree Type (Outdoors)

Any plant or tree after time and dedication that has the potential to become a good Bonsai.  The term was created by Dan Barton in 1970 and is derived from the two words: POTENtial and bonSAI = POTENSAI. In other words it is an alternative term for "material tree". 


Pots for Bonsai - (Pot)

Entry for Bonsai Pots for Bonsai Pot
Run by Gordon Hunt. Looks like on-line only

Potting Bonsai - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Potting Bonsai Procedure

See repotting.


Potting mesh - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Potting mesh Tool
Fine plastic mesh used to cover drainage holes in bonsai pots. Normally purchased in sheets and cut to size as a cost effective solution but can also be purchased ready made. The mesh is normally held in place over the drainage hole by a short length of bonsai wire bent into a particular shape and passed through the mesh so as to fix it into position.

Potting Sickle - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Potting Sickle Tool

Looks like a knife but with a half hook shape, used for cutting around the edge of the pot in pot-bound trees to extract the root ball from their containers.


Powdery mildew - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Powdery mildew Pests and Diseases
These fungal spores thrive in damp conditions and appear as white, powdery patches on leaves and stems of oak, hawthorn and crab apple in particular. They leach sap, causing the tree to lose vigour. Treatment is via removal of affected shoots, application of fungicide spray and positioning in areas with good air circulation. Image by kind permission of RHS.

Privet - (Ligustrum) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Privet -  (Ligustrum) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Hardy, semi-deciduous shrub with a number of varieties (Sinse : Chinese Privet, Vulgare : Common Privet and Ovalifolium (Oval Leaf Privet). Bears small oval leaves (more pointed on common privet) and small white summer blossoms on a "twiggy" branch structure.

STYLE : suited to informal upright, slanting, root-over-rock, clasped-to-rock, twin trunk, clumpand group styles.

WARNING : Does not like standing water. Ensure well drained.


Privet - Chinese (Ligustrun Sinsensis) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Privet - Chinese (Ligustrun Sinsensis) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Semi-deciduous shrub bearing small oval leaves (less pointed than on the common privet) and small white summer blossoms, followed by purple/black berries on a "twiggy" branch structure.

STYLE : suited to informal upright, slanting, root-over-rock, clasped-to-rock, twin trunk, clumpand group styles.

WARNING : Does not like standing water. Ensure well drained.


Prostate - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Prostate Tree Style

The growth habit of a plant that is inclined to grow along the ground, rather than upright.


Provado - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Provado Treatments

A systemic insecticide to control Vine weevil, Greenfly, Whitefly, Black fly, Scarid fly, Thrips, Caterpillars and Scale insects.

Provides up to 4 months protection.

Suitable for use indoors or out.


Pruning - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Pruning Procedure

In order to develop a bonsai from an existing plant, branches will need to be pruned in order to establish the overall structure of the tree. This is referred to as the "subtraction" method.

Pruning of established bonsai is also required to remove new shoots and foliage, in order to maintain the overall shape and design of the tree. 

Pruning of the trees roots is also required to maintain healthy bonsai (see Root Pruning).


Pseudolarix Amabilis - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Pseudolarix Amabilis Tree Type (Outdoors)
The Pseudolarix is often mistaken for a larch (larix) but tends to have larger leaves. Often also called the Golden Larch because of its autumn colours which helps lead to the confusion.

Pumice - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Pumice Growing Medium
This very hard volcanic growing medium is not widely used in the UK yet. This product is very light & very free draining yet has the capacity to hold huge amounts of moisture within the structure of the grains. Far better than traditional granite or silica based drainage mediums, which do not dissipate water well. Neutral in PH with virtually no inherent nutrients.

Pyracantha (Firethorn) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Pyracantha (Firethorn) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Shrub with heavily spiked branches bearing small, oval leaves, white flowers in spring/summer and clusters of red/orange/yellow berries in the autumn.

STYLE : Suits informal upright, slanting, cascade, semi-cascade, root-over-rock, clasped-to-rock and clump.

WARNING: Spines are lethal - tips can be trimmed. Branches are stiff and easily broken. Wire and bend when young and thereafter with great care.


Pyrethroid Insecticide - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Pyrethroid Insecticide Treatments

Pyrethroid insecticides are a special chemical class of active ingredients found in many of the modern insecticides found on store shelves and used by pest management professionals. The name pyrethroid means “pyrethrum-like” and refers to the origin of this class of pesticides.



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Quercus - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Quercus Tree Type (Outdoors)

An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus of the beech family Fagaceae, having approximately 600 species. 

As bonsai commonly used in Europe are -

Quercus Rober - English oak (or French oak)

Quercus Suber - Cork bark oak

A full list of Quercus species is available on the web link above


Quince - Chinese (Chaennomeles sinensis) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Quince - Chinese (Chaennomeles sinensis) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Emanates from China/Korea. Flakey bark and dense glossy leaves that turn from green to various shades of orange/red in autumn. Pink flowers followed by yellow fruits.

STYLE : Suitable for several styles : informal upright, twin trunk or group.

WARNING : Leaving too many fruits on the tree can exhaust it.


Quince - Flowering (Chaenomeles) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Quince - Flowering (Chaenomeles) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Medium sized shrub found in temperate zones throughout the world. Small, oval mid green leaves with flowers ranging from white and pink through to red - all with yellow centres.

STYLE : Suitable for several styles but not formal upright or broom. Because of their tendency to produce suckers, the predominant style tends to be "clump".

WARNING : Leaving too many fruits on the tree can exhaust it. Too many suckers can drain energy from older parts of the tree.


Quince - Japanese - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Quince - Japanese Tree Type (Outdoors)

Native to eastern Asia in Japan, China and Korea, these plants differ from the Quince and the Chinese Quince in their serrated leaves, and in the flowers which are 3-4.5 cm diameter, with five petals, and are usually bright orange-red, but can be white or pink; flowering is in late winter or early spring.

STYLE : Suitable for several styles but not formal upright or broom. Because of their tendency to produce suckers, the predominant style tends to be "clump".

WARNING : Leaving too many fruits on the tree can exhaust it. Too many suckers can drain energy from older parts of the tree.



Letter

Raceme - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Raceme Tree Parts

A type of elongated flower with individual stalks growing from a single stem e.g wisteria


Raffia - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Raffia Tool
Made of strips of bark from the raphia palm, this is soaked and wrapped arround a section of tree which requires significant bending, to protect it from splitting and from damage by the wire

Rake - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Rake Tool

Small rake used in bonsai for clearing soilaround nebari or tree roots (during repotting). Usually combined with either tweezers or a spatula at the other end of the tool.


Ramification - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Ramification Tree Parts

Ramification means branching or branch development that displays taper, resulting in a tracery of fine branches at the extremities of the branches. It is encouraged by pruning and may be integrated with practices that promote leaf reduction  


Red spider mite - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Red spider mite Pests and Diseases

There are two types : the fruit tree red spider mite on broad-leaved trees and the conifer spinning mite on conifers. Indications of infection are an unhealthy browning of the foliage accompanied by a silky webbing. Tiny spider-like mites may also be seen on leaf undersides. These can cause serious damage and should be sprayed with insecticide - ideally Malathion or Derris.  Alternative type is the Glasshouse Red Spider Mite or  "Web-forming Tetranychus".


Red Spot Disease - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Red Spot Disease Pests and Diseases
This is a disease of maples which is triggered by a fungal attack causing brilliant red "pimples" to appear on the bark. Initially the bark, and then the whole branch dies back. The only known treatment is to prune back to healthy wood.

Reduction building - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Reduction building Procedure

This process uses accelerated growth techniques and massive foliage and branch reduction, followed by strong re-growth, more moderate reduction and training (primarily by training).  It is used to produce larger trunks with character and taper, particularly in tropical regions but may be applied in temperate regions to species like azaleas.


Redwood - California (Sequoia sempervirens) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Redwood - California (Sequoia sempervirens) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Very tall evergreen conifer with a columnar outline and drooping lower branches. It has attractive, red/brown fibrous bark and flattened, needle-like leaves which are mid-green and curved on main shoots and dark green, flat and narrow on lateral ones.

STYLE : Ideal for formal and informal upright, slanting and group styles.

WARNING : Branches tend to resume upward growth after freeing from any wiring.


Reniform (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Reniform (leaf) Tree Parts

Kidney shaped with stem attached at concave edge.


Repotting - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Repotting Procedure

The roots of potted trees are limited by the size of their container as to how far they can spread. After a period of time which varies dependant on the species of tree, the root systems of all pot-grown trees fill their containers, eventually becoming 'pot bound' and in some cases they begin to push the tree out of the pot.

When this happens the fine feeder roots that are essential to the uptake of water and nutrients have little room to grow, are far away from the main trunk of the tree, the soil structure deteriorates and the plant starts to suffer. At this point repotting is required to allow fresh compost/potting medium/substrate to be inserted in and around the root system and the root sytem itself may require cutting back so that it can continue to form fine feeder roots closer to the trunk.


Reticulate leaf - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Reticulate leaf Tree Parts
Leaf with a complex surface pattern, usually created by a network of veins.

Reverse osmosis - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Reverse osmosis Pests and Diseases
The passage of water from the roots into the soil. This is often caused by an excessive concentration of fertilizer in the soil and can result in browning of foliage and , in extreme, untreated cases, the death of the tree.

Rhizome - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Rhizome Tree Parts

This is a  continuously growing horizontal underground stem which puts out lateral shoots and adventitious roots at intervals.

Well known plants with an underground rhizome system include ginger and bamboo.


Rhododendron (Azalea) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Rhododendron (Azalea) Tree Type (Outdoors)
See Azalea (Rhododendron) .

Rhomboid (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Rhomboid (leaf) Tree Parts

Diamond shaped.


Ring barking - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Ring barking Procedure
Also referred to as "girdling". The removal of a band of bark (which can vary in width) from all around the trunk of a tree or branch when air-layering or trying to encourage new roots to form.

Rising Sun Bonsai - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Rising Sun Bonsai Dealer

Expert advice and support provided by Robert Porch, a long-standing bonsaist based in the Glasgow area.

Offers : Demonstrations and workshops.  Styles and semi-styled bonsai.  Nursery stock, accent plants and Mame pots.

email : robertporch@fsmail.net

Phone (evenings) 0141 5633806

Mobile : 07882482901


River sand - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai River sand Growing Medium

Usually a clean white sand with medium size particles, sometimes suggested as an ingredient in bonsai soil mix in order to promote drainage. To the extent that "organic" components are minimised the risk of soil borne insect and disease problems is also reduced. It is one of many ingredients suggested for a beneficial growing medium, the balance of which will be determined by plant type and local climatic conditions.


Ronin Bonsai - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai Ronin Bonsai Blogs and Advice
Ray Coulombe of Carlisle UK has been into bonsai for about 25 years. He is known as a Willowbogger as he visits and help out at Willowbog Bonsai in the North Of England. He hosts an open night every Monday night when friends come and work with trees, drink tea and coffee and have a good natter.

Root Aphid - (Pot)

Entry for Bonsai Root Aphid Pot

Root aphids appear as a white woolly deposit and feed on the roots.  Because they are hidden under the soil their presence is not always evident.  Severe infestations can weaken the tree leading to pale or yellowing foliage and weak branching.

They may be spotted during repotting and should not be confused with mycelium which tends to be greyer and coarser wheras the root aphid is a bright white colour.  One method of identification is to examine under pot in the dark using a torch as the aphid often leaves the pot and stays under it in the dark, returning in the light.

Treatment is by two successive immersions in Provado solution a couple of weeks apart - the first to kill the aphids and the second to kill the aphids which have hatched since the first immersion.


Root burn - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Root burn Pests and Diseases
The effect on the roots of reverse osmosis caused by over-feeding with a rich fertilizer.

Root graft - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Root graft Procedure

In bonsai this approach is most often used to improve the structure of the nebari. The technique is the same as for cleft grafting but, in this case, the scion is a section of root which is grafted onto the required position within the nebari. The process is generally carried out in spring.


Root hook - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Root hook Tool
This is used to disentangle and separate roots prior to root pruning. It is usually a single metal hook with a rounded end, so as not to damage the roots during the operation. However, alternatives include a bent fork, chopsticks or a piece of wooden dowel with a rounded end.

Root lesion eelworms - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Root lesion eelworms Pests and Diseases

See entry for : "Eelworms"


Root Pruning - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Root Pruning Procedure

Pruning of the roots followed by repotting encourages young feeder roots to multiply and develop, which in turn leads to a healthier and stronger tree.

Root pruning should generally be carried out in spring to allow maximum time for recovery before winter. After the tree is removed from its pot and the roots untangled, the roots should be trimmed on all sides of the root ball (usually by about one third) in order to form a flat, circular pad of roots.


Root Rot - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Root Rot Pests and Diseases

This occurs where too much water or fertilizer is applied, or the wrong soil mix is used, or where roots have dried out then rotted when water is applied. Treatment is to remove all dead root, dip in Benomyl or Orthocid solution and repot in new soil. Spray rather than water initially, keep out of drying wind and only apply fertilizer once new roots have had chance to form.

See also Honey Fungus.


Rootball - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Rootball Tree Parts

The body of roots and soil evident when a tree is taken out of its pot or pulled up from the ground.


Rootgrow - (Fertiliser)

Entry for Bonsai Rootgrow Fertiliser
The trading name for a product produced in the UK which contains mycorrhizal fungi which live in a symbiotic relationship with plants enabling them to extract nutrients and hold onto water in very difficult soil conditions.

Roots - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Roots Tree Parts

The first function of roots is structural : to anchor the tree in the ground.

The second function is to gather moisture, together with water borne nutrients and minerals from the soil, through fine feeder roots covered in root hairs.

The third function of the roots is the winter storage of sugars in the thicker, woody roots. As the soil warms in spring the sugars are released to provide energy for new root and foliage growth.


Rosette (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Rosette (leaf) Tree Parts

Leaflets in tight circular rings


Rotate (leaf veins) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Rotate (leaf veins) Tree Parts

Veins emanating from the stem where this joins the leaf at its centre rather than its edge (i.e. in peltate leaves).


Rowan (Sorbus Aucuparia or Cashmiriana) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Rowan (Sorbus Aucuparia or Cashmiriana) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Also commonly termed "Mountain Ash" - or "Quickbeam in USA. The "Aucuparia" is the most common variety but others , such as "Cashmiriana" also are less frequently cultivated.

Pale smoothish trunk supports spreading branches from which sprout 6 or 7 pairs of oval, serrated leaflets on the aucuparia and up to 9 pairs on the cashmiriana. The aucuparia bears cream/white flowers in spring/early summer and orange/red berries in late summer/early autumn. The cashmiriana has pink flowers.

STYLE : Most styles except formal upright and broom.

WARNING : Protect from extreme temperatures.


Rust - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Rust Pests and Diseases
This appears as slightly raised orange/red spots on the leaves of the tree. Affected leaves should be removed and destroyed as soon as possible and the tree sprayed with a zinc based fungicide.

Ryuga Bonsai Tools - (Manufacturer)

Entry for Bonsai Ryuga Bonsai Tools Manufacturer

RYUGA Bonsai Tools are produced by a subsidiary of YM Group, a very big manufacturing group in China producing premium quality garden tools under OEM for Japan market. And RYUGA is their first new bonsai tools brand being marketed outside Japan. So RYUGA is produced and quality controlled with Japanese standard, but with the benefit of Chinese cost. RYUGA also gives two years quality guarantee of free replacement for any quality claim on all of its products. RYUGA has exclusive agents in more than 20 countries worldwide.

Contact UK bonsai tools suppliers.



Letter

David J Sampson - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai David J Sampson Dealer

Offers a premier selection of fine Japanese suiseki and associated items for sale.

Contact via website only.


Sabakan - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Sabakan Tree Style
Hollowed or rotten trunk.

Sabamiki - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Sabamiki Tree Style

As its western name of "Split Trunk Style" suggests, this style reflects the position in nature where the trunk has split in two due to action by lightning or by heavy branches peeling away and taking a section of the trunk with them.

The style is typically bare in part and rugged in appearance. It should look like it has "been through the wars." The example shown is an escalonia grown by Peter Thorne of the Ayr Bonsai Group.


Sabi - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Sabi Other

Often used together with the term "wabi" both of which terms relate to the Japanese sense of shibui, the aesthetic tastefulness and austerity in art and movement.  Sabi is the sense of beauty that comes with great age and which is acheived by nature, not by man.


Sachi eda - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Sachi eda Tree Parts

Primary branch which establishes the direction and movement of the tree.  See also Ichi no eda and Uke eda and San no eda.


Sagari eda - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Sagari eda Tree Parts

Branches (called "sagari eda") growing straight down should be removed from your bonsai tree, unless of course your a growing a cascade style tree.

 

See Branch Pruning.


Sageretia (Sageretia Theezans) - (Tree Type (Indoors))

Entry for Bonsai Sageretia (Sageretia Theezans) Tree Type (Indoors)

Notable feature is its patchy, peeling (Plane tree type) bark. Its slender branches support small, shiny, evergreen leaves and white flowers which develop into blue berries.

STYLE : Suited to all styles.

WARNING : High humidity essential. Site above or near (not on) water.


Saikei - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Saikei Tree Style

Saikei is a landscape in a tray/container formed by a grouping of trees together with a selection of plants, rocks, moss and sand to form a landscaped scene.  This style is said to have been created by Toshio Kawamoto inspired by miniature gardens of ancient origin.

Also sometimes referred to in the West as a "composition".


Salisbury Bonsai Society - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Salisbury Bonsai Society Club or Group

The Society was founded in August 1987 by two local bonsai enthusiasts, Rita Molland and Valerie Casey.

Meets on the first Monday of the month at Laverstock Village Hall Duck Lane at 7.45pm.

Contact is by email at m5eay.geoff@btinternet.com

 


Samon yose (Sambon Yose) - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Samon yose (Sambon Yose) Tree Style

Group planting with three trees


San no eda - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai San no eda Tree Parts

Japanese term for third branch of a bonsai tree.


Sankan - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Sankan Tree Style

Denotes a "3 trunks on the same tree" triple trunk style.


Sapwood - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Sapwood Tree Parts

Also known as Xylem. This section of the trunk sits between the heartwood and the cambium. Its function is to transport water and nutrients upwards through the outer annual rings. Sugars are transported downward via the inner bark (known as the Phloem).


Saramiki - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Saramiki Tree Style

Style where the trunk is stripped of its bark like a dead tree. (See : Sharamiki).


Saruyama Bonsai - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai Saruyama Bonsai Blogs and Advice

Professional bonsai and suiseki from Peter Warren. Educated by well known Japanese bonsai master Kunio Kobayashi.

Saruyama Bonsai provides a fully comprehensive and professional bonsai service from first styling to regular maintenance. Some limited sales items but main content relates to display and advice site than a dealer or club.


Satinwood Tree (Murraya Paniculata) - (Tree Type (Indoors))

Entry for Bonsai Satinwood Tree (Murraya Paniculata) Tree Type (Indoors)

See Jasmine Orange (Murraya Paniculata)


Satsuki Azalea (Rhododendron Indicum) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Satsuki Azalea (Rhododendron Indicum) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Satsuki is the Japanese word for fifth moon or May. In bonsai most usually applied to Azaleas because of their tendency to flower for about a month in May.

Azaleas are members of the Rhododendron family, and are generally thought of as small varieties of that family. However many miniature Rhododendrons have been classified so this does not hold true.

Azaleas and rhododendrons are the same plant, both ERICACEOUS (lime-hating), with thousands of CULTIVARs. They are noted for the wide VARIETY and vibrancy of colours of FLOWERS which bloom mostly on "garden" specimens in mid-spring. Most popular for bonsai are the SATSUKI AZALEAs which are distinguished by often having multiple different coloured blooms on the same tree.

STYLE : Best in all sizes and all styles, except broom.

WARNING : Some fertilizers can be slightly ALKALINE so ensure truly ERICACEOUS FERTILIZER only is used.


Satsuki Azalea Society - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Satsuki Azalea Society Club or Group

No disecernable info available, although it did exist at one stage the old web address does not appear to work.


Satsuki Database - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai Satsuki Database Blogs and Advice

A web site from the Netherlands dedicated to Rhododendron Satsuki Azaleas.

One section of the site deals with hundreds of named varieties of Satsuki Azaleas with a description and photograph which can be added to by anyone.


Saw - Folding - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Saw - Folding Tool

Used for cutting branches which are too thick for concave or knob cutters.

The blade usually has 16 teeth to the inch and saws on the pull stroke. The blade folds into the handle when not in use.


Scale insect - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Scale insect Pests and Diseases

These are a group of tiny sap-sucking insects which look like hard white, yellow, red or brown blisters on leaves and stems.

They attach themselves via a fluffy, sticky white mass. Removal using a cotton bud soaked in methylated spirits is effective for small infestations but for larger quantities application of a systemic insecticide is the best solution.


Scissors - long handled - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Scissors - long handled Tool

Known in Japan as Koeda Kiri Hasami. Used for light branch and twig pruning, the long handles enabling access to inner branches.

Scissors used for bonsai differ from normal scissors in that both blades are sharp i.e. like two knives, which when they cross one another cut from both directions rather than one cutting edge and a flat edge which could crush plant material.


Scissors - Root cutting - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Scissors - Root cutting Tool

Known in Japan as Hasami. Heavy duty scissors designed for cutting of tree roots when repotting.


Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Considered to be Scotlands national tree and one of our Indigenous Trees (Scotland). In Britain grows wild mainly in Scotland but is the most widely distributed conifer in the world. An evergreen coniferous tree. Widely indigenous across western Europe and into Asia. A two needled pine greatly underrated as a Bonsai.

STYLE : Suitable for most styles, except broom, but particularly good for literati.

WARNING : Do not confuse mycorrhizal funghi for root aphids when repotting. The Scots Pine and mycorrhizal funghi have a symbiotic relationship which benefits both organismisms. Prevent root rot by protecting from prolonged rain


Scottish Bonsai Association (SBA) - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Scottish Bonsai Association (SBA) Club or Group

The umbrella organisation for many of the local bonsai clubs in Scotland. Goals are to teach and encourage interest in the art of bonsai and to support the National Bonsai Collection of Scotland. Also sponsors the National Exhibition , held annually, which in 2016 will be held in Bannockburn near Stirling.

President: Jeff Banning
Vice President: Mike
Secretary: Dave Waddinton
Treasurer: Ina Morris 0131 3331525

The member clubs of the SBA can be viewed by clicking the More Info button below


Scottish National Bonsai Collection - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Scottish National Bonsai Collection Club or Group

The Scottish National Bonsai Collection is a charitable trust housed at Binny Plants Ecclesmachan, West Lothian.

The collection is housed in a display area of the garden centre and is free to view for members of the public. More information regarding the collection can be seen by clicking the web link.

Contact : roymars1@live.co.uk

 


Seaweed Extract - (Fertiliser)

Entry for Bonsai Seaweed Extract Fertiliser

Seaweed extract, is claimed to be good for improving the soil, although there are differing opinions on its benefits.

The attached guide from Kaizen Bonsai gives a balanced view, concluding that, using seaweed products alongside a good fertiliser regime can improve results and lead to healthier bonsai.


Semi-cascade pot - (Pot)

Entry for Bonsai Semi-cascade pot Pot

Designed for semi cascade and can be any shape (square, round, hexagonal) but tend to be rather "squat" in style.

This picture shows an attractive example from the site of British Bonsai.


Semi-evergreen - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Semi-evergreen Tree Type (Outdoors)
A tree which keeps its leaves in a mild winter but loses some or all of its foliage in a hard one.

Sensai - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Sensai Other

This word is generally used to show respect to someone who has acheived a certain level of mastery in an art form (or some other area)  such as novelists and musicians.  It is also used for bonsai masters who have attained a high level of skill.


Sequestered iron - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Sequestered iron Treatments

Sequestered iron supplies the necessary iron in a form plants can use to correct iron deficiency.

Iron deficiency results in pale yellow leaves, poor growth and is the main reason why rhododendrons, heathers and other lime haters cannot be grown well on chalky or alkaline soils. The iron comes in several forms, often mixed with other beneficial ingredients such as seaweed extract and magnesium.


Sequestrene  - (Fertiliser)

Entry for Bonsai Sequestrene  Fertiliser

Brand of product delivering sequestered iron. Sequestered iron supplies the necessary iron in a form plants can use to correct iron deficiency.

Iron deficiency results in pale yellow leaves, poor growth and is the main reason why rhododendrons, heathers and other lime haters cannot be grown well on chalky or alkaline soils. The iron comes in several forms, often mixed with other beneficial ingredients such as seaweed extract and magnesium.


Seramis - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Seramis Growing Medium

Clay Granules. Made from pure clay mined in Germany, Seramis is a high quality growing medium suitable for use in drip re-circulating hydroponic systems and passive hydroculture. 


Shady Plants - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Shady Plants Dealer

A family run specialist fern nursery,  situated in the fern rich area of the Blackwater valley in Co. Waterford.
They claim to have a large selection of hardy ferns for sale, probably the widest selection of garden ferns to buy online in Europe. We also have a good range of ferns suitable for the house, conservatory or Terrarium, now in their separate section.

Contact via web site

Address is:
Mike Keep
Shady Plants Fern Nursery
Coolbooa
Clashmore
Co. Waterford
Rep. of Ireland.

Tel: 00353- 86 0542171


Shan shui penjing - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Shan shui penjing Tree Style

Chinese term describing a Chinese art form including landscape with rocks, water and sometimes plants in its imagry.  Term also used in painting.


Shape - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Shape Tree Style

What shape should a bonsai be? Well any really and there are a number of bonsai styles that emulate trees in real life. The size and style allow bonsai trees to be categorised for show purposes so many will fall into one of the show categories.

What if I am just starting and don't really want to show my bonsai trees (except to friends etc). Well as a rule of thumb many first time bonsai trees are purchased for one of a large chain of stores or maybe even from a flower show and most of them come in one style - informal upright. It is therefore a good idea to follow the style the tree already follows.

Click the More button.

 


Shari - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Shari Procedure

A shari is an area of deadwood which extends down the trunk of a tree.

It is created by tearing away bark from a jin and continuing this down the trunk. The area is then treated with lime sulphur to whiten and preserve the deadwood which has been exposed.

See also  - Nejikan.


Shidari - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Shidari Tree Style

Also termed Zukuri in the East and Weeping Style in the West. Similar to style in nature of the weeping willow.

Bottom branches should be bigger than the top, as in other styles, and will weep less than top branches. Shoots should be trained early to produce the "fishing pole" curve effect. In this case the curve can be achieved using weights as opposed to wire.


Shield graft - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Shield graft Procedure

Also known as "Bud graft". In this process the bark of the tree where the graft is to be applied should be first well-soaked with water and a "T" cut should be made through to the cambium in the location where the new branch is required.

With shield/bud grafting, instead of a scion, just a small piece of bark with a well-formed heel is cut from the scion and inserted inside the "T" of the stock. This heel is the dormant bud lying at the join between the trunk and the leaf axil. The wound bound with raffia and coated with wax.


Shikikan - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Shikikan Tree Style

Tree with seven trunks


Shima Ishi - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Shima Ishi Tree Style

Stone placed in a water filled tray.


Shin (Ten) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Shin (Ten) Tree Parts

Japanese term describing the apex of the tree.  See also "ten"


Shito - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Shito Tree Style

Tree size sub-classification in the "Miniature" bonsai range, measuring 5-10 cms.  Also referred to in Japan as "Fingertip size" i.e. can be held in the fingertips.


Shohaku - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Shohaku Tree Type (Outdoors)

Japanese term for conifers and evergreens such as pine and juniper


Shohin (size) - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Shohin (size) Tree Style

This medium sizing classification for bonsai is pronounced "sho-hin" and is between 15-30 cms (6-12 inches) in height.

Being larger than mame , the shohin tree can usually incorporate more detail into the design. Generally the measurement is taken as the longest line of the tree. So in upright trees it is from the rim of the pot to the apex of the tree. For cascades it would be the apex to the tip. Generally, the proportion rather more critical than the exact size.

Shohin tree shown is a Musk Maple, courtesy of Wattston Bonsai.


Shohin Europe - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai Shohin Europe Blogs and Advice
Shohin blog by Morten Albeck , Danish bonsai artist.

Shoots - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Shoots Tree Parts

Shoots are new plant growth which develop into stems and branches which become leaf, and possibly, flower bearing.


Sieve - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Sieve Tool
Basically the same as the familiar garden sieve but for bonsai it is often sold with interchangeable sieve screens in order to effectively sort the growing medium by size.

Slugs and snails - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Slugs and snails Pests and Diseases

These attack the roots, shoots and leaves of the plant and can do a lot of damage in a very short time.

They do most damage at night or when it is wet, so ensure that any dead leaves or other hiding places are cleared away. They can be picked off if visible but otherwise the use of a pellet type slug bait near the pot is likely to be the most effective deterrent.


Small ermine moth - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Small ermine moth Pests and Diseases

Signs of infestation are webs wrapped around the foliage, silken threads between leaves and possibly a visible cocoon on the tree. Sometimes the caterpillar may be seen on the undersides of leaves.

Recommended treatment is to cut away infected branches or, before the damage becomes really serious, apply tar oil. Also, halfway through spring, when the caterpillars shed their skins, an application of organophosphate contact insecticide may be applied.


Snag - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Snag Tree Parts
A section of stem left above a bud when pruning.

SNS Yamadori - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai SNS Yamadori Dealer

SNS Yamadori are specialists in individual quality raw material.

Contact -

Tel: 07779 169312 or 01934 514243

Email: nath8onions@hotmail.com

 


Soil scoop - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Soil scoop Tool
Small scoops available in plastic or (more expensive) stainless steel, used during repotting to measure out and apply manageable quantities of soil.

Soju - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Soju Tree Style

Group planting of two trees. In all multiple-trunk styles, conventional bonsai specimens use trees of the same species.

As with the twin-trunk style, the two-tree style has a dominant, larger tree and a smaller one. The two trees may be set very close to one another, as in the twin-trunk style. They may also be set apart, as they do not share a single root.

 


Southern Beech - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Southern Beech Tree Type (Outdoors)

See Nothofagus


Spatula - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Spatula Tool
A spatula is used for tamping soil around the base of bonsai. It is often at the opposite end of a bonsai rake or bonsai tweezers.

Spatulate (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Spatulate (leaf) Tree Parts

Elongated spoon shaped leaf with stem at the narrow end.


Spear shaped (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Spear shaped (leaf) Tree Parts

Species - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Species Other

Plants which are genetically similar and which reproduce exactly when self-fertilised.

Plants are subdivided into Family, Genus, Species and then Cultivar. Cultivars or Hybrid are the more modern terms for Variety.


Spherical knob cutter - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Spherical knob cutter Tool

Sometimes also referred to as a "wen" cutter.

Used for pruning branches close to the trunk. They have a concave cutting edge in both directions, resulting in a small round hollow which heals more quickly and more invisibly.

They are also used for intial rough carving of dead wood and jins and whittling away stubs which are too large for one cut.


Spider Mite - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Spider Mite Pests and Diseases

Signs of infestation are patches of dry foliage, particularly on small-needled conifers. Some fine web-like structures may also be seen, although the mites themselves are too small to be seen by the naked eye.

By shaking the affected branch over a peice of white paper it may be possible to dislodge dead mites which appear as small black specs. The live mites cling tightly to the tree and so are best treated with a systemic insecticide spray.


Split Trunk - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Split Trunk Tree Style

Japanese term : Sabamiki. As its name suggests this reflects the position in nature where the trunk has split in two due to action by lightning or by heavy branches peeling away and taking a section of the trunk with them.

This style is typically bare in part and rugged in appearance. It should look like it has "been through the wars."

The example shown is an escalonia grown by Peter Thorne of the Ayr Bonsai Group.


Spraying (water) - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Spraying (water) Procedure

Spraying is an essential part of watering. Plants should be "mist-sprayed" via a fine rose attached to a watering can or via a hand operated sprayer in orde to refresh the foliage , provide a humid atmosphere and wash away any dust.

Newly potted trees often benefit more from mist spraying to prevent excessive evaporation from the leaves.


Spruce (Picea Abies) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Spruce (Picea Abies) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Often termed Common Spruce or Norway Spruce. Has orange/brown bark when young which turns to purple/grey when mature. Foliage is dark green, flattened, needle-like. Often grown in dwarf form (Little Gem/Maxwellii).

STYLE : Suited to all styles except broom.

WARNING : Dense foliage makes spruce particularly prone to red spider mite and spruce aphid attack.


Spruce Aphid - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Spruce Aphid Pests and Diseases

A small, green, sap-sucking insect which infests spruce trees during winter resulting in needle die-back and in severe cases death of the tree. Another sign of infestation is a black sooty mould on stem joints.

Treatment is possible using Bayer Provado Ultimate Bug Killer Concentrate or Bayer Sprayday Greenfly Killer applied in autumn and winter


Spur - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Spur Tree Parts

Specialised short branch on a fruit tree which produces the blossom.


Starch - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Starch Other

Starch is produced by a plant from excess carbohydrate and stored for later use when enzymes convert the starch back into sugar or glucose, which is then dissolved and passed into the phloem to be moved throughout the plant by osmosis.


Sterilized bark - (Growing Medium)

Entry for Bonsai Sterilized bark Growing Medium

Bark is an organic fibrous material that holds a lot of moisture and as such is a useful addition to a bonsai soil mix.

As with all mixes it is important to get the balance right as too much water retention can be damaging in the dormant period. The best ingredient is sterilised (by application of heat) in order to minimise/eliminate any pest/disease content.


Steve Tolley Bonsai - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Steve Tolley Bonsai Dealer

Runs Four Dimensional Art to provide high quality trees (yamadori from Europe) and nursery grown from Japan) allied with expert bonsai tuition.

Contact -

Email: info@stevetolleybonsai.com


Stewartia (Stuartia) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Stewartia (Stuartia) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Acid loving tree related to the camelia. Most common bonsai varieties are "monadelpha" and "pseudocamellia".

Despite bearing large white flowers and spectacular autumn foliage, the most striking aspect of this tree is its shiny, copper-brown bark. Winter image is much treasured.

STYLE : Best suited to formal upright or group.

WARNING : Delicate bark scars easily from wiring. If pruning scars properly hollowed and sealed they will heal invisibly. If not they will leave ugly lumps.


Stoma (plural = stomata) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Stoma (plural = stomata) Tree Parts

These are minscule openings in the pores of leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide are absorbed.


Stomata - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Stomata Tree Parts

Microscopically small openings in the epidermis of the green parts of the tree through which gases pass out of and into the tree from the air.


Stone Monkey Ceramics - (Pot)

Entry for Bonsai Stone Monkey Ceramics Pot

Maker of high quality ceramic bonsai pots. Online sales only. Contact details via web


Strike - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Strike Procedure
The successful outcome of taking cuttings. Cuttings "strike" whereas grafts "take".

Structure of a tree - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Structure of a tree Tree Parts
Describes the main components of the tree : underground roots/surface roots/trunk/branches/foliage

Sub-species - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Sub-species Other

This is a variety within a species which has identifiable characteristics different from other sub-species e.g. Acer Palmatum - amoenum


Subtropical - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Subtropical Tree Type (Outdoors)
Describes a tree which can tolerate low temperatures but cannot tolerate total freezing.

Subulate leaf - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Subulate leaf Tree Parts

Awl shaped, tapering to a pointed apex.


Suckers - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Suckers Tree Parts

A sucker is a basal shoot that grows from the base of a tree or shrub


Sui Ban - (Pot)

Entry for Bonsai Sui Ban Pot

Suiban are shallow trays used to display "suiseki" viewing stones. 

They are often filled with a layer of sand or water on/in which the stone is placed.

 


Suiseki - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Suiseki Other
Suiseki (pronounced suu-ee-seck-ee) are small, naturally formed stones admired for their beauty and for the image they convey of scenes from nature such as a mountain, a waterfall, an island, a thatched hut, or an animal.

Super Drive - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Super Drive Treatments

Super Drive Plant Growth Stimulant, like Superthrive, is a powerful plant growth enhancer. It contains specialized plant extracts blended to create a unique and powerful growth enhancer.

Super Drive can be used at every stage of plant growth from seeds and cuttings to maintaining ancient bonsai trees. Particularly effective as a foliar spray. Highly concentrated formulation means high dilution rate, one little bottle goes an extremely long way.


Superthrive - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Superthrive Treatments

Advertised as the best known and most respected plant growth stimulant ever made with the following attributes :

-Promotes plant vigor in all pot grown plants and Bonsai.
-Improves foliage colour of your Bonsai.
-Increases the uptake of fertilizers.
-Increases foliage density.
-Helps resistance to pest and disease
-Increases root mass.
-Increases the survival rate of collected trees.
-Speeds up rooting of cuttings and air layers.
-Speeds recover of bonsai from re-potting.
-Restores plants following pest infestation and dehydration.
-Improves resistance to extremes of cold and heat.


Sussex Bonsai Group - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Sussex Bonsai Group Club or Group

Sussex Bonsai Group was founded in August 1979 by a small group of enthusiasts interested in the art and culture of Bonsai. The aim of the Club is to promote the awareness, the understanding and skill associated with Bonsai.

The Club is a non-profit making organisation with all expenses found from within the membership.

The Group meets on the 4th Wednesday of each month at the Wivelsfield Village Hall, West Sussex.  A full list of club meetings for 2014 can be found on the web site.


Swindon & District Bonsai - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Swindon & District Bonsai Club or Group

The club annually stages a major exhibition of Bonsai at our show which is held at, The Premier Club, Swindon. This usually takes place in February.

Our aim is to promote the hobby of Bonsai growing in every way. We welcome new members to join us, it doesn’t matter if you are a total beginner to the Art of Bonsai or very experienced.

Contact : contact@swindon-bonsai.co.uk


Systemic Insecticide  - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Systemic Insecticide  Treatments

The term systemic means that the chemical is soluble enough in water to be absorbed by a plant and moved around in its tissues.

Movement of systemic insecticides, like all transportable chemicals in the plant, takes place principally in the plant's vascular system.

Systemic insecticides used within bonsai culture are readily available at your local garden centre as they are the same as used on full sized garden plants.


Systemic pesticide - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Systemic pesticide Treatments
A pesticide which goes inside the plant and travels in the sap stream.


Letter

Tachi eda - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Tachi eda Tree Parts

Branches (called "tachi eda") growing straight up should be removed from your bonsai tree. 

 

See Branch Pruning.


Take (budding) - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Take (budding) Procedure

The successful out come of budding. Grafts "take" whereas cuttings "strike".


Tako Zukuri - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Tako Zukuri Tree Style

Termed the "Octopus Style" in the West because of its exagerated twists and turns in both trunk and branch often accompanied by contorted, well-exposed root. The overall effect of the style should be to make the tree should look like a scary, monster tree from a fairy tale.

The photo on the left is from a naturally contorted beech in the south west of Scotland.


Tan gei - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Tan gei Other

Generic Japanese term to denote bonsai material.


Tan gei - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Tan gei Other

Generic Japanese term to denote bonsai material.


Tankan - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Tankan Tree Style

Single trunk tree so termed in the classification by number of trunks on a single set of results.


Tanuki - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Tanuki Tree Style

In Japanese folklore, tanuki is a Japanese raccoon dog, noted as a shape-changing trickster.

A tanuki bonsai, is where a living tree is joined to a piece of deadwood to create a composite in the driftwood style. It is not genuine driftwood-style which are very rare.

The tanuki process enables the creation of a driftwood-style product from more commonly available materials. The technique involves adding living material (often juniper) to a section of deadwood via a groove in the deadwood. It is fixed using screws, wire wrappings, or clamps. Over time, the young tree grows into the deadwood channel, fusing with teh deadwood. Once matured the fixings are removed.

The picture shown is a Tanuki Juniper, courtesy of Wattston Bonsai.


Tape - self amalgamating - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Tape - self amalgamating Tool

Used instead of, and sometimes together with, rafia when bending branches.

This rubber tape is slightly tacky and sticks to itself when stretched around branches. The tape is really flexible and will stretch to more than five times its original length.

Self amalgamating tape is also useful for joining together a branch which has been broken say during the wiring process and will hold the parts of the branch exactly in place while the tree heals itself. The tape which can be left on the branch and will deteriorate over a few years by which time the branch is repaired.


Taper - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Taper Other

The gradual lessening of the thickness of the trunk or branches towards their extremeties.

The general guideline in bonsai is that tapering should be relatively uniform and that inverse taper should be avoided.


Taunton & Somerset Bonsai Club - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Taunton & Somerset Bonsai Club Club or Group

Meets on the second Wednesday of each month at 7.15pm.

Meetings at: United Reformed Church Hall
Paul Street
TAUNTON,
Somerset.
TA1 3PF

Tel :01823 619475


Taxus Baccata - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Taxus Baccata Tree Type (Outdoors)

See : Yew-Common


Taxus Cuspidata - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Taxus Cuspidata Tree Type (Outdoors)

See : Yew-Japanese


Ten (apex)  - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Ten (apex)  Tree Parts

Alternative Japanese term describing the apex of a tree.  See also " Shin "


Test - (Antique Potters)

Entry for Bonsai Test Antique Potters

This is just a test of email connect


The Art of Bonsai Design - (Books and Articles)

Entry for Bonsai The Art of Bonsai Design Books and Articles

Author : Colin Lewis

Development of several trees from a number of species, with some fascinating horticultural and practical details.


The Bonsai Book - (Books and Articles)

Entry for Bonsai The Bonsai Book Books and Articles

Author : Dan Barton

First published in 1989 but still considered to be one of teh "go to" books on bonsai.


The Bonsai Group - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai The Bonsai Group Club or Group
The Bonsai Group
ENFIELD, NORTH LONDON

Name:

Joy Savage

email:

joyliz.savage@virgin.net

Tel No:

 

Venue:

Capel Manor College, EN1 4RQ

Day:

Second Tuesday 7.30pm, most months


The Complete Book of Bonsai - (Books and Articles)

Entry for Bonsai The Complete Book of Bonsai Books and Articles

Author : Harry Tomlinson

Early book on practical techniques and pictures of a huge number of species at various stages of development.


Thinning out - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Thinning out Procedure
Pruning to achieve a more open structure in the tree.

Thread grafting - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Thread grafting Procedure

Threadgrafting is a process where a hole is made through the trunk and the the scion (new shoot) is then threaded through the hole and fixed into position - after exposing the cambium of the shoot.

As the scion and the trunk continue to grow they swell and are forced together; eventually grafting together.

This method is suitable for deciduous and broadleaf trees but not for coniferous species where complete defoliation of the scion will result only in the death of the shoot.


Three points  - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Three points  Tree Style

The basic shape for most bonsai is some form of triangular image where the 3 points of the triangle represent Heaven, Earth and Humanity.


Tochoshi - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Tochoshi Tree Parts

Branches (called "Tochoshi") growing much longer than other branches should be removed from your bonsai tree, however, this branch is sometimes used to adjust the growth of other branches and/or growth of the trunk for the purpose of making the trunk and other branches thicker or to slow down their growth i.e. a sacrificial branch which will be removed at a later date.

 

See Branch Pruning.


Tokonoma - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Tokonoma Other

Traditional Japanese display area often an alcove in a house which is set aside for the purpose. The contents of a Tokonama would most likely be a family bonsai tree on a table or display area, with a smaller tree or accent plant and a simple scroll on the wall.


Tony Remington Studio - (Pot)

Entry for Bonsai Tony Remington Studio Pot
Individually designed, high quality bonsai and accent plant pots. Contact via website only

Tony Tickle - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Tony Tickle Dealer

Tony has been working with bonsai since 1983, he specialises in native European trees, in particular; Hawthorn (Crataegus), Yew - Common (Taxus Baccata) and Pine (see Pine - Scots (Pinus sylvestris) and others). He won his first Ginkgo awards in 1997, UK winner and runner up in the European New talent competition in 1995.

Tony demonstrates at major conferences throughout the UK and Europe, Tony is widely published with a regular column in Bonsai Focus. Tony has had Bonsai selected for four Gingko awards, Nominated for a Noelanders award in 2009, World Conferences and many European events.

Contact:

Contact Tony through his web site linked above.


Tools for bonsai - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Tools for bonsai Tool

As with many hobbies there are many "specialist" tools which have been developed to carry out specific tasks. However, there are a small slection of basic bonsai tools which will cover most requirements. These include - 

  • trimming shears,
  • concave branch cutter,
  • spherical knob cutter,
  • wire cutters
  • root hook.

In some cases tools can be developed from other items. For example, a rake can be made by bending the tines of a dinner fork, or ordinary pliers can be used instead of jin pliers. The important thing is to match the tools to the type of bonsai work intended e.g. : small tools for small trees and larger tools for large trees.


Tortrix moth - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Tortrix moth Pests and Diseases

Small brown or green caterpillars spin edges of leaves together and feed within this protective cover, forming irregularly shaped holes during May/June period.

Affected leaves should be picked and destroyed . Spray with insecticide if necessary.


Transpiration - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Transpiration Other

This is the process of water loss from trees as stomata (small openings on the undersides of leaves) open and close in response to the levels of moisture in the atmosphere.  Transpiration also transports nutrients from the soil into the roots carrying them to the various cells of the plant.


Tree of a thousand stars (Serissa foetida) - (Tree Type (Indoors))

Entry for Bonsai Tree of a thousand stars (Serissa foetida) Tree Type (Indoors)

Distinguished by attractive, dark green (sometimes variegated) leaves borne at very short intervals along the branch and small white flowers which appear in flushes throughout the year and give the tree its name.

Damp trunks and roots give off an unpleasant smell in its natural environment but this is not noticeable in bonsai speciments.

STYLE : Suited to all styles except formal upright and broom, but especially suited to multi-trunk or low spreading styles.

WARNING : Spray less often when in flower as they need to dry off quickly or will deteriorate. Ensure good air circulation.


Trimming shears - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Trimming shears Tool

Used for trimming twigs and small branches easily and precisely.

The handles are big enough to accommodate all fingers and also allow the picking off of prunings with the same hand without having to put the shears down. The rivet should be loose enough for the handles to fall open easily and not have to be pulled apart. The blades should be sharpened to a knife edge rather than a scissor edge in order to cut cleanly, without crushing.


Tropical - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Tropical Tree Type (Outdoors)
Describes a tree which cannot tolerate low temperatures - even if they are above freezing.

Truncate (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Truncate (leaf) Tree Parts

Oval form but with squared off apex.


Trunk of the tree - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Trunk of the tree Tree Parts

The trunk of the tree provides both structural support and also carries moisture and nutrients upwards from roots to shoots and sugars downwards from the leaves to those areas of the tree where it is needed. At its centre is the "heartwood". This is surrounded by the "xylem" (or sapwood) which is in turn surrounded by the "cambium". The cambium is surrounded by the "phloem" (inner bark), which is protected by the outer bark.

Japanese term - Miki


Tsukami yose - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Tsukami yose Tree Style

Tree style where several seedlings or slips are gathered together at their root ball so that the bases will fuse together to produce what looks like a single multi-trunk bonsai.


Turnbuckle - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Turnbuckle Tool

Hook and eye turnbuckles are used to apply gradually increased force to pull large branches and trunks into position.

One end of the turnbuckle is tied to the branch which requires to be bent and the other end is attached to an anchor point, then pressure is exerted by tightening the turnbuckle.

These come in a range of sizes.


Turntable - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Turntable Tool

Generally the same as a turntable used by potters or cake decorators.

The revolving base enables the tree to be rotated easily through 360 degrees so that all aspects can be viewed during the styling process.

They can range from single plastic discs for easy transport and outside use (shown here) up to more sophisticated versions with "height" and "tilt" adjustability so that all aspects of the tree can be viewed from all angles.

There are many improvised varieties including adapted "lazy susans", cake icing stands and piano stools.


Tweezers - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Tweezers Tool

Used for removing insects , picking off leaves or buds, weeding, or placing moss.

Tweezers are often combined (on the opposite end) with a spatula (for firming) or rake (useful when repotting).


Twisted - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Twisted Tree Style

Japanese term : Nejikan.

This is defined by a trunk of the tree which grows in a twisted style (but not exagerated into full coils , which is the Bankan style).

The existance of shari will exaggerate the effect, which in extreme examples can be described as the "barber pole" effect.

This is most often seen on juniper where the red bark contrasts vividly with the pale shari.


Two needle pine - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Two needle pine Tree Type (Outdoors)

Term used to describe pines where needles grow in clusters of 2.  Main varieties are Scots Pine and Mugo Pine, although Red and Black pines also fall into this category.

There are many articles about caring for these types of pine and it is recommended that more than one is relied upon to ensure balance as there are varying opinions in some areas about best practice - especially on the subject of candle pruning.



Letter

Uke eda - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Uke eda Tree Parts

Counterweight to the primary branch (sachi eda) positioned on the opposite side of the tree to give the design balance.


Umbellate flowers - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Umbellate flowers Tree Parts
Characteristic of umbelliferous plants, in which the flowers arise from the same point in the main stem and have stalks of the same length, to give a cluster with the youngest flowers at the centre

Ume (Japanese Plum) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Ume (Japanese Plum) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Ume is an Asian tree species classified as genus Prunus. Its common names include Chinese plum and Japanese apricot. It is a deciduous tree with oval, taper pointed, mid-green leaves producing blossom, fruits and large blooms of fragrant flowers on bare winter branches.

STYLE : suited to every style, except formal upright and broom.

WARNING : Do not allow soil to dry out while in bud, otherwise buds will drop. Protect from frost to avoid die-back or flower damage. Picture courtesy of British Bonsai.


Underplanting - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Underplanting Procedure
Growing of low growing, small plants underneath bonsai specimens.

Unifoliate (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Unifoliate (leaf) Tree Parts

Having a single leaf.


Uro (hollow) - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Uro (hollow) Procedure

This is a small hollow in the trunk of deciduous trees created to mimic the effect when, in nature, a branch is lost leaving an indentation where the branch used to be.


Ushiro eda - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Ushiro eda Tree Parts

Japanese term for the back branch of a bonsai placed to give perspective to the image.



Letter

Vale of Clywyd Bonsai Society - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Vale of Clywyd Bonsai Society Club or Group
Vale of Clywyd Bonsai Society
Hawarden

Chair:

Mark Kennedy

email:

mark@greendragonbonsai.co.uk

Tel No:

07500 005 337

Venue:

Level Road Community Centre
Hawarden
CH5 3 SB

Day:

2nd Sunday of month


Variegated leaf - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Variegated leaf Tree Parts
Leaves which are spotted, blotched or edged with a different colour to the basic one.

Variety - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Variety Other

A naturally occurring variation of a species. As opposed to a Cultivar which is cultivated and does not occur naturally in the wild.

More correctly a Variety is called a Hybrid.


Venation (of leaves) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Venation (of leaves) Tree Parts

The pattern of veins on leaves


Verticillium wilt - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Verticillium wilt Pests and Diseases
This fungal infection transmitted via the roots causes leaf yellowing and die-back in maples by attacking the sapwood. It is difficult to detect so trees should be treated with a systemic fungicide as a preventative measure. If it occurs the infected soil must be carefully disposed of. Image by kind permission of RHS.

Vine weevil - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Vine weevil Pests and Diseases

The adult vine weevil is relatively harmless. It is the fat, creamy white, maggot-like larvae from which it develops which attacks the root system of the plant and can quickly kill a tree. The larvae will strip the roots right up to the soil surface so the damage will not be evident until the tree shows signs of stress, begins to wilt and dies.

This insect is difficult to eradicate but treatment with a soil insecticide should eradicate the larvae. If the larvae is found during re-potting then the roots should be washed clean before re-potting. Image by kind permission of RHS/Joyce Maynard



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Wabi - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Wabi Other

Often used together with the term "sabi" both of which terms relate to the Japanese sense of shibui, the aesthetic tastefulness and austerity in art and movement.  Wabi is the concept of beauty reflected in the plain, natural and healthy aspect of form.


Walsall Ceramics - (Pot)

Entry for Bonsai Walsall Ceramics Pot

High quality bonsai pottery. Walsall Studio Ceramics has been in the full time production of high quality hand made Bonsai Pots for over 25 years. Individual designs and will make to order.


Walter Pall Blog - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai Walter Pall Blog Blogs and Advice

Walter Pall's main blog about bonsai and his work with trees from day to day. Lots of good pictures of good trees and lots of valuable information about bonsai.


Warminster Bonsai - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Warminster Bonsai Club or Group

Meet at 7.30 in the evening, on the third Thursday of each month at Christ Church Hall BA12 9PJ. This is located, first left as you go into Upper Marsh Road from Weymouth Street and opposite the Church.

Contact Chairman( Clive) on 07798584795 or info@warminsterbonsai.co.uk


Watering - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Watering Procedure

Outdoor Trees

Watering a bonsai is an art in itself. Weather conditions across the country vary from county to county and even in your own garden conditions will vary due to exposure to the sun, wind and available rainfall.

The simple answer to the question "when do I water my bonsai" is of course when it needs it. In the height of a warm summer you will need to water your bonsai much more regularly and at some times daily to keep it at its peak condition. In a rainy spring week you may never have to water it at all.

One tip is to allow a small weed or flower to grow in the bonsai pot alongside the tree - when this wilts you will know that the tree needs watering.

There are a number of factors which determine the frequency of watering -

Click the MORE button


Watering Nozzle - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Watering Nozzle Tool
Hoze attachment which delivers an adjustable spray when watering, allowing power to be gauged so that tree soil surface is not overly disturbed.

Wattston Bonsai - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Wattston Bonsai Dealer

The only bonsai trader based in Scotland. Also operates online and provides an 0800 883 0899 number for trade enquiries.

Specialises in the importation of high quality trees, tools, pots, wire and soils and operates a 20% deposit plus instalments payment scheme.

Also hosts workshops and the Lanarkshire Bonsai Group.

Contact -

Tel: 0800 883 0899


Wee Trees Bonsai Forum - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai Wee Trees Bonsai Forum Blogs and Advice

Forum for exchange of information and advice on bonsai issues.


Weeping - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Weeping Tree Style

Japanese term : Shidari or Zukuri.

Similar to style in nature of the weeping willow.

Bottom branches should be bigger than the top, as in other styles, and will weep less than top branches.

Shoots should be trained early to produce the "fishing pole" curve effect. In this case the curve can be achieved using weights as opposed to wire.

The example shown here is courtesy of British Bonsai.


Wellingtonia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Wellingtonia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) Tree Type (Outdoors)

In the wild this is the worlds largest living tree. It is an evergreen conifer with a distinctive conical outline and drooping branches. It has attractive, red/brown spongey bark and dark green "awl" shaped leaves.

STYLE : Ideal for formal and informal upright, slanting and group styles.

WARNING : Branches tend to resume upward growth after freeing from any wiring.

 


Wen Cutters - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Wen Cutters Tool

Also known as Knob Cutters. Known in Japan as Kobu Kiri Hasami. For removing branches or branch stubs or for tidying up other cuts.

The blades are engineered to leave a rounded hollow wound, which should then heal quickly without leaving ugly bumps on the trunk.


Wessex Bonsai Society - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Wessex Bonsai Society Club or Group
Wessex Bonsai Society
Bournemouth

Name:

Julie Collins (Chair):

email:

wessexbonsaisociety@ymail.com

Tel No:

07870 114760

Venue:

Kinson Community Centre, 
Millhams Road, 
Kinson, 
Bournemouth, BH10 7LH

Day:

2nd Tuesday of the month at 7.30 followed by 4th Sunday morning of the month


West Lothian Bonsai Group - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai West Lothian Bonsai Group Club or Group

We meet at the Old Livingston Mill Farm on the first Thursday of most months. Visitors are always welcomed.

Club : West Lothian Scottish Bonsai Association.
Address : Almondvale Heritage Centre,
Millfield,
Livingston,
EH54 7AR.
Convenor - Lee Purdie.
Tel No - 01506 871934.
Email - purdie4@btinternet.com. 

Meetings - Meets on the first Thursday of the month 7.30pm

See Weblink for further details.


Whorl - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Whorl Tree Parts

Three or more leaves, branches or stems growing out from one location on a branch.

Most frequently encountered in pines.


Whorled (leaf) - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Whorled (leaf) Tree Parts

Rings of three or more leaflets


Why Bonsai - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai Why Bonsai Blogs and Advice
General information site re. bonsai. Includes sections on trees, soil, pots. art

Wigston Bonsai Society - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Wigston Bonsai Society Club or Group
Wigston Bonsai Society
NR. LEICESTER

Name:

Mike Konig

email:

mike.konig@ntlworld.com

Tel No:

07511 380 357

Venue:

Wigston Primary School, Meadow Way, Wigston, Leics.

Day:

Last Tues.7.30p.m.


Wildling - (Other)

Entry for Bonsai Wildling Other

Term sometimes used to describe young trees harvested from the wild.  (Source : The Bonsai Book by Dan Barton).


Willow (Salix) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Willow (Salix) Tree Type (Outdoors)

The Willow family includes a large number of tree types, upright, twisting or weeping (babylonica). They also exhibit a variety of bark and foliage colourings, although all bear catkins. All are vigorous growers and love moisture.

STYLE : Suitable for informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, twin trunk, root over rock and saikei.

WARNING : Do not allow to dry out.


Willowbog Bonsai - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Willowbog Bonsai Dealer

Supplier of high quality trees in addition to a range of supporting accessories.

Very active in arranging demonstrations, workshops and open days.

Bonsai chat is a free, open session held the first Saturday of every month for anyone who wants to attend, seek advice, work on trees etc.   

Contact - Willowbog Bonsai
Willowbog Farm
Wark
Hexham
Northumberland

Tel : 01434 681217


Willowbog Bonsai Blog - (Blogs and Advice)

Entry for Bonsai Willowbog Bonsai Blog Blogs and Advice

 

WILLOWBOG BONSAI - Supplier of high quality trees in addition to a range of supporting accessories.

Very active in arranging demonstrations, workshops and open days.

Bonsai chat is a free, open session held the first Saturday of every month for anyone who wants to attend, seek advice, work on trees etc.   

Also publishes a blog featuring a record of various events at the site and other interesting bonsai features.

Contact - Willowbog Bonsai
Willowbog Farm 
Wark 
Hexham 
Northumberland

Tel : 01434 681217


Windybank Bonsai - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Windybank Bonsai Dealer

WindyBank Bonsai have been trading and importing high quality Bonsai from Japan for thirty years.

They import yearly and say that they always stock hundreds of trees, from raw material to high quality specimen Shohin, Chuhin and larger trees.

Contact - Windybank Bonsai
60 Woodmansterne Lane,
Carshalton,
Surrey,
UK
SM5 4BJ

Tel : 0208 669 8847


Wire (types) - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Wire (types) Tool

Wire is used to wrap around branches in order to allow them to be shaped and held in position while the form of the tree is stabilised.

The most common type of bosai wire used (for cheapness) is anodized aluminium wire which is brown on the outside with a silver "core". Alternatively annealed copper wire, which is more expensive and which needs to be heated to soften it, is used by the more experienced growers.

Bonsai wire comes in gauges a half millimeter apart from 1mm ranging up to 6mm and is generally sold in 500gram rolls (although smaller rolls of 100 grams are obtainable).


Wire cutters - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Wire cutters Tool

Known in Japan as Yattoko. Although there are many versions of wire cutter on the market, these are specifically designed for bonsai work.

Although they have sharp blades, they also have blunt ends so that wire can be cut close to the tree without cutting or harming the tree itself.

They generally have longer handles which makes it easier to cut thicker wires.


Wiring - (Procedure)

Entry for Bonsai Wiring Procedure

This is the technique of using annealed copper or anodised aluminium wire, wrapped around branches to enable them to be bent and held in shape so that a desired design can be achieved.

Different gauges of wire are available to match to different branch dimensions, the general guideline being that the wire should be a third the width of the branch. With thicker branches double wiring may be required. Copper wire is by its nature stiffer than the less expensive aluminium and tends to be used less often on trees in training. However the general consensus is that trees being "shown" if wired should use copper wire.

Warning - Wire can scar branches if left on too long allowing the branch to "grow around" it, so regular checking is important as wire scarring can take years to grow out - and in some tree types it never will.

We are regularly asked the question "how long do I leave the wire on?" The answer is "long enough to set the branch in place". This sometimes takes weeks on a fast growing tree during the growing season or years for a slow growing tree. Sometimes when the wire is removed the branch will spring back into its original position which means that the branch will require rewiring.


Wirral Bonsai Society - (Club or Group)

Entry for Bonsai Wirral Bonsai Society Club or Group

A progressive local bonsai society, promoting bonsai in the North West and beyond. They hold monthly meetings and bi-monthly workshops.

The Wirral Bonsai Society was formed in 1988 by a few local bonsai enthusiasts and has grown from strength to strength.

Monthly Club meetings are held at the R.A.F.A. Club, 17 Shrewsbury Road, Oxton, CH43 1UU on the second Wednesday of the month.

In addition, there is a bonsai workshop, the last Sunday of the month at Gordale Garden Centre and the second Sunday of the month at Port Sunlight, both run from 10.30 until 4pm. There will be experts on hand at both these venues, to give advice and assistance.


Wisteria (Wisteria) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Wisteria (Wisteria) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Deciduous climber with slender branches and leaves, each formed of 12-19 leaflets. Best in summer when purple, mauve or white flowers are borne in long racemes.

STYLE : Suitable for informal upright, cascade and root-over-rock styles. 

WARNING : Pruning shoots too soon will retard flowering. Delay until essential but then prune hard.


Witch's broom - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Witch's broom Tree Parts
A tightly congested, localised foliage growth found in many species of tree, usually caused by a virus.

Withdrawn Chemicals - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Withdrawn Chemicals Treatments

The Royal Horticultural Society has published a list of withdrawn chemical pesticides, fungicides, weedkillers and growth inhibitors in the UK.

The UK banned chemicals have been judged harmful to humans or animals. See attached website.


Woodandclay - (Pot)

Entry for Bonsai Woodandclay Pot

Innovative bonsai potter Daniel Butler has developed a broad range of complimentary processes and materials knowledge including metal, glass, resin, ceramics, plaster and rubber producing a range of original and unique designs.


Woolly Aphid - (Pests and Diseases)

Entry for Bonsai Woolly Aphid Pests and Diseases

Shows as white "waxy" wool which protect colonies of aphids. Spray with long last or brush off with methylated spirits.



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Xylem - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Xylem Tree Parts

Also known as Sapwood. This section of the trunk of the tree sits between the heartwood and the cambium. Its function is to transport water and nutrients upwards through the outer annual rings. Sugars are transported downward via the inner bark (known as the Phloem).



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Yagoeda - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Yagoeda Tree Parts

Branch growing from the bottom of the tree. The sprout (Yagome) comes  first but when it becomes a branch (yagoeda), it takes all the nutrition and can kill the other new growing branches on the tree so should be removed from your bonsai tree. 

See Branch Pruning.


Yagome - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Yagome Tree Parts

Branches (called "yagome") growing from the bottom of the tree.(Yagome is just a SPROUT first but when it becomes a branch (yagoeda), it takes all the nutrition and can kill the other new growing branches on the tree) so would normally be removed from your bonsai tree.

 

See Branch Pruning.


Yamadori for Sale - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Yamadori for Sale Dealer

Site run by renowned bonsai artist and teacher; Tony Tickle. Supplies high quality yamadori for the experienced bonsai enthusiast.

Contact via website only.


Yamagata - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Yamagata Tree Style

Single rock representing a mountain with a single tree growing thereon.


Yattoko - (Tool)

Entry for Bonsai Yattoko Tool

This is the Japanese term for wire cutters .

See Wire Cutters for more detail.


Yew - common (Taxus baccata) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Yew - common (Taxus baccata) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Slow growing with grey-brown bark with russet underlay. Bears dark green, needle-like leaves, with small green flowers in spring and red berries. All foliage is poisonous.

STYLE : Suitable for most styles, except broom.

WARNING : Foliage is poisonous to animals and humans. Keep shaded and sheltered from wind all year.


Yew - Japanese (Taxus cuspidata) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Yew - Japanese (Taxus cuspidata) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Slow growing evergreen conifer with grey-brown bark with russet underlay. Bears dark green, needle-like leaves (lanceolate (leaf)) with paler undersides than the common yew, with small pink (as opposed to green) flowers in spring and deep-pink berries. All foliage is poisonous except for the fleshy berry surrounding the seed. Nana is a dwarf form well suited to small bonsai styles.

STYLE : Suitable for most styles, except broom.

WARNING : Foliage is poisonous to animals and humans. Keep shaded and sheltered from wind all year


York Bonsai - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai York Bonsai Dealer

York Bonsai has been trading since 2004 and stock most items needed for bonsai, ranging from bonsai trees to bonsai soil, bonsai wire and feeds.

The site also offers free to download guides on how to care for bonsai covering : repotting, watering and other useful information.

The majority of items are sold by mail order but collection is available by arrangement.

Contact via website or

Email: enquiries@yorkbonsai.co.uk

Tel: 01904 639754 07966 047077



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Za - (Tree Parts)

Entry for Bonsai Za Tree Parts

Japanese term for the artistic presentation of the tree base and nebari.


Zacs Bonsai - (Dealer)

Entry for Bonsai Zacs Bonsai Dealer

Zac's Bonsai is a family run company started 15 years ago, specialising in wholesale distribution of Bonsai and Japanese garden ware.

Contact via website or -

Email: mail@zacsbonsai.co.uk

Tel: 01233 771 990


Zelkova (Japanese Elm) - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Zelkova (Japanese Elm) Tree Type (Outdoors)

Strong growing deciduous tree with long erect branches growing from a short straight trunk. In winter the elongated, serrated edged, leaves turn from deep green to crimson/bronze, orange/yellow.

STYLE : Suitable for all styles but especially suited to broom and group styles (especially if trunks are not straight enough for broom).

WARNING : Keep the structure light and airy as congestion of fine twigs can cause dieback - sometimes of whole branch.


Zineb - (Treatments)

Entry for Bonsai Zineb Treatments

Fungicide used to control downy mildews, rusts and redfire disease.

Withdrawn from use in the USA but still available outside the USA.


Zouki - (Tree Type (Outdoors))

Entry for Bonsai Zouki Tree Type (Outdoors)

Japanese term for deciduous trees.


Zukuri - (Tree Style)

Entry for Bonsai Zukuri Tree Style

Also termed Shidari in the East and Weeping Style in the West.

Similar to style in nature of the weeping willow. Bottom branches should be bigger than the top, as in other styles, and will weep less than top branches.

Shoots should be trained early to produce the "fishing pole" curve effect. In this case the curve can be achieved using weights as opposed to wire.




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There are 819 published entries in the Bonsai A to Z and the pages have been viewed 2841633 times. Help us to increase the number of relevant bonsai terms included in this A to Z of Bonsai Terms. We include manufacturers and dealers in the dictionary, if you are one or know of one not mentioned then just click the link above and add an entry. If you have a favourite bonsai tree not mentioned just add an entry. We are trying to create a unique single free source for all bonsai terms and hope to capture worldwide bonsai terms for bonsai trees, bonsai clubs associations and national collections and the A to Z is free marketing for bonsai businesses and bonsai clubs.
   
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